Some processes cannot be shared = 1st stimulus must complete processing before 2nd can access stage processes
Wait time produces RT2 increase, the PRP effect
What is the attentional blink?
Task 1: search for and identify designated target among distractors
Task 2: Indicate if probe letter appeared in the stream
If T1 is correctly identified --> decrease in performance across next 6/7 items
If T1 is omitted, there is no performance deficit
Appearance is that of a "blink" in attention
What is important for the attentional blink to occur?
Information input is critical: blank after T1 disrupts effect, Masking is necessary--limits info on T1 adds additional info to be inhibited
Distinctiveness/Similarity of targets and distractors: Symbols less effective than digits at disrupting letter processing, in figure: legend indicates type of distractor immediately following T1 and T2
What is the attentional blink influenced by?
Level of Automaticity
Baseline activation of information
Is memory automatic or controlled processing?
Automaticity occurs after practice
Practice may make some stages more efficient, but does not allow parallel processing
Same memory set every trial
Different memory set every trial
Function of Inhibition of Return
Biases attention to new locations
If searching, biases search away from previous (unproductive) locations
Inhibition of Return in OCD
General IOR function observed reduced IOR for LVH stimuli in OCD
Suggests lateralized deficit in volitional attention
What are the 3 networks in the neural Circuitry for Attentions?
Alerting, Orienting, and Executive network
What is the function of the Alerting Network in attention?
Achieving (maintaining) state of heightened sensitivity to incoming stimuli
What is the function of the Orienting Network in attention?
Selecting attentional focus
Moving and engaging the spotlight
What is the function of the executive network in attention?
Maintains and sustains attentional focus
Alerting Network brain areas
Locus Coeruleus: Norepinephrinergic distribution through cortex, increased arousal
Orienting network brain areas: Parietal Lobe
Responsible for overt and covert attentional selection
Parietal lobes: Disengagement of attention, Indicate that other stimulus is requesting attention, system is damaged in neglect syndrom, over activation may lead to excess distractibility
Orienting Network: Superior Colliculus
Main function is eye movement control, tracking
Orienting Network: Pulvinar (of the thalamus)
Selects the new target in the spotlight
Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
Maintains, sustains attentional focus
Damage produces rumination
What are concepts and categories good for?
Reduces complexity of the environment (chunking)
Allow rapid, easy identification of objects
Reduces need for constant new learning
Evaluate relationships among objects
Quick response selection
Plato's view of cognition
Emphasis on true forms
Mind was a shadow of the external truth
Descartes' view of cognition
Mind contains ideas
thoughts, images, sensations
Ideas are the fundamental unit of consciousness
1.) What is a concept
2.) What does it do
3.) How is it expressed?
1.) The fundamental unit of thought for modern philosophers
2.) Concepts organize information, similar to categories, define categories
3.) Simple concepts can be expressed by language, but the linguistic definition is NOT identical to the concept
Information can be part of conceptual knowledge but not necessary for definition
Linguistic definitions are NOT conceptual categories
Children begin concepts using...(Piaget)
Developed by questions/answers with adults
What are the 3 types of concept?
Single: cards with red; cards with circles
Conjunctive: cards with red circles or cards with 2 borders and 2 shapes
Disjunctive: cards with either a read shape or a square of any color
What are 2 strategies to developing concepts?
Wholist (reception): take first positive instance, note attributes, each subsequent instance eliminate any attribute that doe not recure
Conservative: Find 1st positive instance, test additional cards varying by one dimension from criterion card
Concept forming with familiar items
Categories with fuzzy borders
artificial categories designed as unambiguous
Natural categories have ambiguous 'sort of' members
What are prototypes?
Summaries of concept
Prototypical objects are more influenced by...
Typically a basic level: level at which people most commonly processes information
Differences among categories/concepts are based on...
Commonalities among members
Differences with non-members
Alignable differences: based on a commonality
Nonalignable differences: not based on commonality
What are the 3 types of category pairs?
2 basic categories, same superordinate: (bed-couch, horse-cow)
2 basic categories, different superordinate: (bed-horse, couch-cow)
2 superordinate categories (furniture animals)
What are Theory-based categories?
Tend to organize new information based on previous info
Small capacity: 7 ± 2 items, Items may be ‘chunked’
Duration of 18 - 30 s
Exhaustive retrieval available(within time limits)
Vulnerable to both interference and decay
New items displace old
What is the Brown/Peterson Task?
Provided letters for recall: Example: J V G M T
Asked to count backwards out-loud by 3’s: Begin with different number each trial, Decreases ability to rehearse letters, Time for counting varies: 3, 9, 18, 30 s
Results: Poorer recall withgreater interval, Almost no recall at 30 seconds
What most people refer to as‘memory’
Stores semantic information: Gist, abstracted material, NOT exact sensory information
Very large (infinite) capacity
Very long (infinite) duration
Partial retrieval: depends on cue, reconstructive
Retrieval failure due to poor cues, interference, brain injury
What is the serial learning effect?
List learning: 36 words, Presented 3 s per / word, Recall words
Serial Position Effect: Position of item in listpredicts likelihood ofsubsequent recall
Items at end of listremembered better
Usually the first to be recalled: Immediate awareness, Dumped onto responsesheet ASAP
Result of STM: If 1 minute delay with fillertask (spoken arithmetic) --> effect reduced
What is the primacy effect?
Items at the beginning of listhave higher probability of recall
Usually receive the most rehearsal
Most likely to beconsolidated
Result of LTM
If quick presentation rate (1word / s) to preventrehearsal--> primacy effect reduced
Describe Amneisa effects and the modal model
Most common amnesia: anterograde – inability toform new long-term memories: STM intact – digit span, word span are normal, Normal on tests of implicit memory/procedural memory, LTM retrieval is normal, Cannot learn new information for long term storage
Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieveprevious LTM information: Never occurs without anterograde amnesia