chapter 23

  1. why do human need a very efficient respiratory system?
    because we used it as a catalyst to produce ATP
  2. list the components of the respiratory system
    • 1-nose
    • 2-pharynx
    • 3-larynx
    • 4-trachea
    • 5-bronchi
    • 6-lungs
  3. what is the primary function of the respiratory system?
    to provide the body with O2 and get rid of CO2 waster
  4. what is the secondary function of the respiratory system?
    help regulate blood PH
  5. what are the six physical requirements for a efficient respiratory system?
    • 1-gas exchange surface
    • 2-exchange of surface must be moist
    • 3-extensive blood supply
    • 4-effective blood supply
    • 5-air must be processed
    • 6-immune defence
  6. define respiration
    respiration is the process of gas exchange in the body
  7. what are the three steps to respiration
    • 1-pulmonary ventilation
    • 2-external respiration
    • 3-internal respiration
  8. what are the two regions of the respiratory system in the structural division of the system
    • 1-the upper respiratory system
    • 2-the lower respiratory system
  9. what organs are found in the upper respiratory system
    • 1-nose
    • 2-nasal cavity
    • 3-pharynx
  10. what organs are found in the lower respiratory system?
    larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
  11. when we divide the two respiratory system functionally what are the two regions?
    • 1-conducting zone
    • 2-respiratory zone
  12. what organs are found in the conducting region?
    nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx down to bronchioles
  13. what are the organs found in the respiratory system?
    respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli and bronchioles
  14. how many nasal cartilages are there? and how many types
    9 cartilage structures
  15. how many bones are there in the nose
    two nasal bones

    six nasal chonchae (R&L, superior, middle, inferior
  16. Where are the vestibule found in the nose?
    anterior portion of the nasal cavity, just inside the nortrils
  17. what are external nares?
    two openings in the nose
  18. what type of tissue lines the nasal cavity?
    pseudostratified ciliated, columnar epithetial and goblet cells
  19. what openings are found in the nasal cavity?
    paranasal sinuses
  20. what divides the nasal cavity in to two separate chambers
    nasal septum
  21. what is the function of nose hair?
    to filter out large air particles
  22. what is the function of the nasal conchae?
    causes air to create a vortex
  23. what is the function of the nasal cavity?
    • 1-clean, moisten and warm air
    • 2-olfactory stimuli
    • 3-resonating chamber
  24. what opening defines the end of the nasal cavity?
    internal nares
  25. what structures define the beginning and end of the pharynx?
    internal nares to cricoid cartilage
  26. what is the wall of the pharynx composed of?
    skeletal muscle and lined with mucous membrane
  27. what are the functions of the pharynx?
    • 1-passageway for air and food
    • 2-provides a resonating chamber
    • 3-houses the tonsils
  28. what are the 3 sub-regions of the pharynx?
    • 1-nasopharynx
    • 2-oropharynx
    • 3-laryngopharynx
  29. where does the nasopharynx start and end?
    its posterior to the nasal cavity and extends to the soft palate
  30. where does oropharynx begin and end?
    the oropharynx starts at the soft palate and extends to the level of the hyoid bone
  31. where does the laryngopharynx start and end?
    from hyoid bone to  and ends at the esophagus
  32. what tonsils are found in the pharynx?
    • 1-the pharyngeal tonsil
    • 2-the palatine tonsil
    • 3-the lingual tonsil
  33. what is the larynx composed of?
    its composed of nine pieces of hyaline cartilage
  34. what is the function of epiglottis?
    to keep food from entering the lungs
  35. what type of tissue lines the larynx?
    ciliated mucous membrane
  36. what are the false vocal chords?
    upper fold-ventricular folds
  37. what are the true vocal chords
    lower fold-rima glottidis
  38. describe the anatomy of the trachea
    12cm long, composed of 16-20 C shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage
  39. what is the carina?
    internal divide of the trachea into L & R primary bronchis
  40. describe the anatomy of the lungs
    paired cone-shaped organ, enclosed within membrane
  41. describe the anatomy of the bronchi tree within the lungs
    trachea to primary bronchi to secondary bronchi to tertiary bronchi to bronchioles to terminal brochioles
  42. where doe the exchange of respiratory gases begin?
    respiratory bronchi
  43. what are the 4 layers of parts of the respiratory membrane
    • 1-alveolar wall-type 1&2 alveolar cells and macrophages
    • 2-epithelial basement membrane
    • 3-capillary basement membrane
    • 4-capillary endothelium
  44. what tonsils are found in the pharynx?
    • pharyngeal
    • palatine
    • lingual tonsils
  45. describe the anatomy of the respiratory membrane
    • very thin, to allow diffusion of gases
    • 300 million alveoli-large surface area for gas exchange
  46. what does the term hypoxia mean?
    low O2 levels
  47. what is the significance of hypoxia for blood flow within the lungs?
    vasocontriction in response, diverts pulmonary blood from areas of the lung to well-ventilated regions
  48. define the term pulmonary ventilation
    inhale and exhale of gases
  49. define boyle's law
    gas pressure is inversly proportional to the volume of the container, if container increase pressure decreases
  50. what is inspiration
    the process of breathing in
  51. what are the principal muscles of inspiration during normal breathing?
    diaphragm and external intercostals
  52. what are the principle muscles of inspiration during labored breathing?
    diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes and pectoralis minor
  53. what is expiration
    breathing out
  54. describe apnea breathing pattern
    temporary stopping of breathing
  55. describe dyspnea
    painful breathing
  56. what is trachypnea?
    rapid breathing
  57. what is costal breathing?
    pattern of shallow chest breathing
  58. what is diaphragmatic breathing?
    pattern of deep abdominal breathing
  59. what does compliance mean?
    the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expands
  60. what conditions can decrease compliance?
    • scar lung tissue
    • insufficient surfactant
  61. where is resistance primarily found in within the lung?
    in the brochioles
  62. which has higher resistance inhalation or exhalation?
  63. what can control the amount of resistance within the lung?
    stimulation from the sympathetic system
  64. what does COPD mean?
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  65. what is the normal respiration rate in one minute?
    12 breaths per minute
  66. what is MVR? and what is a normal volume?
    Minute Ventilation, total inhaled and exhaled per minute about 6liters
  67. What is AVR? and what's the normal value?
    Alveolar Ventilation Rate, about 4200ml
  68. define Henry's Law?
    Amount of dissolved gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of gas and its solubility coefficient
  69. Define Dalton's Law?
    each gas mixture exerts its own pressure
  70. what does the term partial pressure mean?
    the pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
  71. what is the normal atmospheric pressure at sea level?
  72. what is the percent composition of gases in the atmosphere?
    • 78.6% nitrogen
    • 20.9% oxygen
    • 0.93% argon
    • 0.04% CO2
    • 0.06% other gases
  73. what is the partial pressure in the atmosphere at sea level?
    • O2=158.8mmHg
    • Nitrogen=597.4mmHg
    • CO2=.03mmHg
    • water=2.3mmHg
  74. what law governs the diffusion across a membrane of a mixture of gas?
    Dalton's Law=The greater the pressure difference the faster the difussion
  75. what are the three factors that determine the rate of diffusion of a gas?
    • partial pressure difference
    • surface area
    • diffusion distance
    • molecular weight and solubility of gas
  76. where is most of the O2 carried in blood?
    • 98.5% on RBC
    • 1.5% in plasma
  77. What is Homoglobin?
    O2 transporting protein
  78. how many molecules of oxygen does each hemoglobin carry?
    4 molecules
  79. what is the most important factor in determining the binding and dissociation of oxygen to hemoglobin?
    partial pressure of O2
  80. does maternal or fetal homoglobin havea higher affinity for oxygen?
    yes the fetus has a higher affinity
  81. is deoxygenated blood completely lacking oxygen?
    no some O2 is left
  82. at rest how much of the available O2 is used by tissues?
    about 25%
  83. what is the Bohr effect
    a decrease of blood Ph or increase of CO2 will cause homoglobin to release their O2 and stabilize Ph and Co2
  84. does carbon monoxide or O2 have a higher affinity for hemoglobin?
    O2 has higher affinity
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chapter 23