a chemical compound that dissociates in solution, releasing hydrogen ions and lowering the solution pH (a proton donor). An acidic solution has a pH below 7.0
the accumulation of acid and hydrogen ions or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate content) in the blood and body tissues, decreasing the pH.
most common kind of proteinuria, presence of serum albumin in the urine
accumulation of base, loss of acid in the body
massive generalized edema
develop when severe hypoalbunemia
absence of urine formation
arteriovenous (AV) fistula
an abnormal channel or passage between an artery and a vein
accummulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
an excess of urea or other nitrogenous compounds in the blood
a substance that dissociates to give hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions; a substance whose molecule or ion can combine with a proton (hydrogen ion); a substance capable of donating a pair of electrons (to an acid) for the formation of a coordinate covalent bond.
fastest-acting system & the primary regulator of acid-base balance. buffers act chemically to change strong acids into weaker acids or to bind acids to neutralize their effect. the buffers in the body include H2CO3-HCO3, HPO4 or H2PO4, intracellular & plasma protein, & hemoglobin buffers.
a buffer consists of a weakly ionized acid or a base & its salt. buffers function to minimize the effect of acids on blood pH until they can be excreted from the body
organ or tissue from a donor who has already died
a surgical procedure, uses a portion of ileum as a bladder substitute. in this procedure the isolated ileum served as a urine reservoir. it is anastamosed directly to the portion of the remaining urethra after cystectomy. this procedure permits emptying of the bladder through the urethra. this procedure only applies to men because the entire urethra is removed when the cystectomy is performed in women
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
peritoneal dialysis involving the continuous presence of dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity.
the occurrence of neurologic signs and symptoms, attributed to cerebral edema, during or following shortly after intermittent hemodialysis.
excessive discharge of urine
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
the last stage of kidney failure occurs when the GFR is less than 15 ml/min. at this point, renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required
A glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells by stem cells in bone marrow. Produced mainly by the kidneys, it is released in response to decreased levels of oxygen in body tissue
a syndrome in which kidney function declines to the point that symptoms develop in multiple body systems. it often occurs when GFR is less then 10 mL/min
inflammation of the glomeruli
cytotoxic autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against glomerular & aveolar basement membrane & is a rare autoimmune disease
blood in urine
mechanical process for removing waste products and impurities from the blood. Blood is drawn out and filtered through a dialysis machine and then reinfused
free hemoglobin in the urine
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching
HLA are six proteins (three HLA groups, A, B, DR) that appear on the surface of white blood cells and other tissues in the body. These six HLA points determine tissue compatibility between a patient and a donor. The higher the tissue compatibility, the higher are the chances of a transplant to be successful. Although a perfect match is always preferred, studies have shown successful cord blood transplants even when there is a match of only three or four of the six HLA points.
ureters are implanted into part of ileum or colon that has been resected from intestinal tract. abdominal stoma is created.
indiana continent urinary reservoir
a reservoir made to store urine. The pouch is made from a part of the ileum, a part of cecum & ascending colon. These are sewn together to create the pouch. The pouch is separate from active bowel & bowel movement. Surgery will not affect bowel movement
the pouch used the right colon as reservoir, has become a popular form of continent urinary diversion.
excretion of urine that has not been concentrated by the kidneys and has the same osmolality as that of plasma.
a continent ileal reservoir with a capacity of 500 to 1000 mL and a valve made by intussusception of the terminal ileum.
consists of sclerosis of the small arteries and arterioles of the kidney
catheter is inserted into the pelvis of kidney. procedure may be done to one or both kidneys and may be temporary or permanent. it is most frequently done in advanced disease as palliative procedure
nephrotic syndrome results when the glomerulus is excessively permeable to plasma protein, causing proteinuria that leads to low plasma albumin & tissue edema.
an incision into the kidney
A cytotoxin specific for cells of the kidney.
urination at night
abnormally slight or infrequent urination
a type of hemodialysis in which the peritoneum surrounding the abdominal cavity is used as a dialyzing membrane for removal of waste products or toxins accumulated as a result of renal failure. Substances that can be removed in this way include crystalloids such as urea, creatinine, electrolytes, and drugs such as the salicylates, bromides, and barbiturates.
excessive secretion of urine
an inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis that usually results from noncontagious bacterial infection of the bladder (cystitis)
pus in urine
a condition due to chronic kidney disease and renal failure, marked by impaired vitamin D metabolism, elevated serum phosphorus levels, low or normal serum calcium levels, and stimulation of parathyroid function
excessive amounts of urea and other waste products in the blood.
a urinous odor of the breath
ureters are excised from the bladder and brought through abdominal wall, & stoma is created, ureteral stomas may be created from both ureters or ureters may be brought together and one stoma created
strong desire to urinate
a midline closure defect occurs during the embryonic period of gestation, leaving
the bladder open & exposed outside the abdomen
an urethral defect in which the opening is on the ventral surface of the penis rather than at the end of the penis
a urethral defect in which the opening is on the dorsal surface of the penis