V. /安抚；平静/soothe; make calm or quiet; subdue. Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them.
N. /和约；条约/agreement; treaty. Tweedledum and Tweedledee made a pact not to quarrel anymore.
N. /欢乐歌；赞美歌/song of praise or joy. Paeans celebrating the victory filled the air.
ADJ. /辛勤的/showing hard work; taking-Dreat care. The new high-frequency word list is the result of painstaking efforts on the part of our research staff.
ADJ. /可接受的；美味的/agreeable; pleasing to the taste. Neither Jack's underbaked opinions nor his overcooked casseroles were palatable to Jill.
N. /古生物学/study of prehistoric life. The paleontology instructor had a superb collection of fossils.
N. /调色板/board on which painter mixes pigments. At the present time, art supply stores are selling a paper palette that may be discarded after use.
V. /厌烦，腻味/grow tiresome. The study of word lists can eventu¬ally pall and put one to sleep.
V. /减轻/lessen the violence of (a disease); alleviate; moderate intensity; gloss over with excuses. Not content merely to palliate the patient's sores and cankers, the researcher sought a means of wiping out the disease. pal¬liative,ADJ.
ADJ. /苍白的，惨淡的/pale; wan. Because his job required that he work at night and sleep during the day, he had an excep¬tionally pallid complexion.
ADJ. /易于领会的；明显的/tangible; easily perceptible; unmistakable. The patient's enlarged spleen was palpable: even the first year medical student could feel it.
V. /拍动；跳动；搏动/throb; flutter. As he became excited, his heart began to palpitate more and more erratically.
ADJ. /不显著的；微小的/insignificant; petty; trifling. One hundred dollars for a genuine imitation Rolex watch! Lady, this is a paltry sum to pay for such a high-class piece of jewelry.
V. /剧烈批评；猛烈抨击/criticize harshly. Hoping for a rave review of his new show, the playwright was miserable when the critics panned it unanimously.
N. /包治百病的药，灵丹妙药/cure-all; remedy for all diseases. The rich youth cynically declared that the panacea for all speeding tickets was a big enough bribe.
N. /华丽/flair; flamboyance. Many performers imitate Noel Coward, but few have his panache and sense of style.
ADJ. /广泛传播的，流行的/widespread; affecting the majority of peo¬ple. They feared the AIDS epidemic would soon reach pan¬demic proportions.
N. /喧嚣；混乱/wild tumult. When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium broke out among the passengers.
V. /低级趣味的；拉皮条/cater to the low desires of others. The reviewer accused the makers of Lethal Weapon of pandering to the masses' taste for violence.
N. /推崇之至/formal praise. Blushing at all the praise heaped upon him by the speakers, the modest hero said, °I don't deserve such panegyrics."
ADJ. /全景的/related to an unobstructed and compre¬hensive view. On a clear day, from the top of the World Trade Center you can get a panoramic view of New York City and parts of New Jersey and Long Island. panorama, N.
N. /演哑剧/acting without dialogue. Because he worked in pantomime, the clown could be understood wherever he appeared. alsoV.
N. /纸草；草纸（古代的）/ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant. The ancient Egyptians were among the first to write on papyrus.
N. /寓言/short, simple story teaching a moral. Let us apply to our own conduct the lesson that this parable teaches.
N. /典范；模式/model; example; pattern. Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioral psychology. Barron's How to Prepare for College Entrance Examinations was a paradigm for all the SAT-prep books that followed.
N. /悖论；佯谬/something apparently contradictory in nature; statement that looks false but is actually correct. Richard presents a bit of a paradox, for he is a card-carrying mem¬ber of both the National Rifle Association and the relatively pacifist American Civil Liberties Union.
N. /模范/model of perfection. Her fellow students dis¬liked Lavinia because Miss Minchin always pointed her out as a paragon of virtue.
N. /平行状态；相似的/state of being parallel; similarity. Although the twins were separated at birth and grew up in different adop¬tive families, a striking parallelism exists between their lives.
ADJ. /极其重要的/foremost in importance; supreme. Proper nutrition and hygiene are of paramount importance in ado¬lescent development and growth.
N. /妄想狂；偏执狂/psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or persecution. Suffering from paranoia, Don claimed every¬one was out to get him; ironically, his claim was accurate: even paranoids have enemies.
N. /琐碎的东西；零碎的随身物品/equipment; odds and ends. His desk was cluttered with paper, pen, ink, dictionary and other paraphernalia of the writing craft.
V. /解释；批注；注释/restate a passage in one's own words while retaining thought of author. In 250 wordsaor less, para¬phrase this article. also N.
N. /寄生；寄生体/animal or plant living on another; toady; syco¬phant. The tapeworm is an example of the kind of parasite that may infest the human body.
ADJ. /干旱的；干渴的/extremely dry; very thirsty. The parched desert landscape seemed hostile to life.
N. /贱民；被社会遗弃的人/social outcast. If everyone ostracized singer Mariah Carey, would she then be Mariah the pariah?
N. /相等；势均力敌；奇偶/equality in status or amount; close resemblance. Unfortunately, some doubt exists whether women's salaries will ever achieve paritywith men's.
ADJ. /狭小的，地方的/narrow in outlook; provincial; related to parishes. Although Jane Austen sets her novels in small rural communities, her concerns are universal, not parochial,
N. /拙劣的模仿/humorous imitation; spoof; takeoff; travesty. The show Forbidden Broadway presents parodies spoofing the year's new productions playing on Broadway.
N. /突然一阵的，突发的（痛苦，笑，愤怒）/fit or attack of pain, laughter, rage. When he heard of his son's misdeeds, he was seized by a paroxysm of rage.
V. /躲避/ward off a blow; deflect. Unwilling to injure his opponent in such a pointless clash, Dartagnan simply tried to parry his rival's thrusts. What fun it was to watch Kather¬ine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy parry each other's verbal thrusts in their classic screwball comedies!
N. /过度俭省；吝啬/stinginess; excessive frugality. Furious because her father wouldn't let her buy out the clothing store, Annie accused him of parsimony.
ADJ. /不完善的；偏爱的/incomplete; having a liking for something. In this issue we have published only a partial list of contribu¬tors because we lack space to acknowledge everyone. I am extremely partial to chocolate eclairs.
N. /倾向；偏见/inclination; bias. As a judge, not only must I be unbiased, but I must also avoid any evidence of partiality when I award the prize.
ADJ. /一边倒的/one-sided; prejudiced; committed to a party. On certain issues of principle, she refused to take a partisan stand, but let her conscience be her guide. Rather than join¬ing forces to solve our nation's problems, the Democrats and Republicans spend their time on partisan struggles. also N.
V. /分裂开来/divide into parts. Before their second daughter was born, Jason and Lizzie decided each child needed a room of her own, and so they partitioned a large bedroom into two small but separate rooms. also N.
ADJ. /被动的/not active; acted upon. Mahatma Gandhi urged his followers to pursue a program of passive resis¬tance as he felt that it was more effective than violence and acts of terrorism.
N. /护照/legal document identifying the bearer as a citi¬zen of a country and allowing him or her to travel abroad. In arranging your first trip abroad, be sure to allow yourself enough time to apply for and receive your passport you won't be allowed to travel without one.
N. /摹写；模仿/imitation of another's style in musical composi¬tion or in writing. We cannot even say that her music is a: pastiche of this composer or that; it is, rather, reminiscent of many musicians.
ADJ. /田园的；乡下的/rural. In these stories of pastoral life, we find an understanding of the daily tasks of country folk.
ADJ. /显而易见的；公开查阅的/open for the public to read; obvious. It was patent to everyone that the witness spoke the truth. also N.
ADJ. /可怜的，触动人心的/causing sadness, compassion, pity; touch¬ing. Everyone in the auditorium was weeping by the time he finished his pathetic tale about the orphaned boy.
ADJ. /病理学/related to the study of disease; diseased or markedly abnormal. Jerome's pathological fear of germs led him to wash his hands a hundred times a day. pathol¬ogy, N.
N. /痛苦，悲怆，哀婉/tender sorrow; pity; quality in art or literature that produces these feelings. The quiet tone of pathos that ran through the novel never degenerated into the maudlin or the overly sentimental.
N. /铜绿；光泽；古色/green crust on old bronze works; tone slowly taken by varnished painting. Judging by the patina on this bronze statue, we can conclude that this is the work of a medieval artist.
N. /长者，家长；酋长，族长/father and ruler of a family or tribe. In many primitive tribes, the leader and lawmaker was the patriarch.
ADJ. /贵族的/noble; aristocratic. We greatly admired her well-bred, patrician elegance. also N.
V. /资助；支持/support; act superior toward; be a customer of. Penniless artists hope to find some wealthy art-lover who will patronize them. If some condescending wine steward patronized me because he saw I knew nothing about fine wine, I'd refuse to patronize his restaurant.
N. /少量；缺乏/scarcity. They closed the restaurant because the paucity of customers made it uneconomical to operate.
N. /叫花子；非常可怜的人/very poor person. Though Widow Brown was living on a reduced income, she was by no means a pauper.
N. /轻罪，轻微冒犯/slight offense. When Peter Piper picked a peck of Polly Potter's pickles, did Pete commit a major crime or just a peccadillo?