HDFS Exam 2

  1. Benefits of Breast Feeding
    best for infant
  2. Marasmus
    kcal deficiency

    • wasting
    • severe malnutrition during the first year of life leading to death
    • caloric deficiency
    • growth rate declines progressively
    • most common : 6mos. - 18mos.
    • Causes
    • Maternal death
    • Cessation of maternal milk (maternal malnutrition)
    • Inadequate milk substitute
    • Social upheaval cutting off food supply
  3. Kwashiorkor
    protein deficiency

    • during toddlerhood (1-4) leading to an increased risk of death (despite adequate caloric intake)
    • Abdomen and feet swell with water, skin disturbances and hair discolorations
    • Diet high in starch and low in protein
  4. Reflexes
    • genetically carrird automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
    • Illustrate the most obivious organized patterns of behaviors found in the newborn
    • generally fade away after first few months as they are replaced with more porposeful and voluntary movements
  5. Sucking Reflex
    • occurs when newborns automatically suck on an object placed in their mouth
    • enable newborns to get nourishment before they have associated a nipple with food
    • Present at birth , later disappear at 3-4 months
  6. Rooting Reflex
    • occurs when the infant's cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched
    • infant turns its head toward the side that was touched in an apparent effort to find sth. to suck
    • disappear when the infant is 3-4 months old,
    • replaced by the infant's voluntary eating
  7. Moro Reflex
    • a neonatal startle response that occurs in response to a sudden, intense noise or movement
    • when startled, a newborn arches its back, throw back it head, flings out its arms and legs
    • close its arms and legs to the center of the body
    • steady pressure on any part of the infant's body calms the infant after it has been startled
    • disappear around 3-4 months of age
  8. Grasping Reflex
    • occurs when sth. touches the infant's palms
    • infant responds by grasping tightly
    • replaced around the end of the third month by voluntary grasps
  9. Gross Motor Skills
    • Large muscle activities
    • ex. moving one's arms and walking

    Sequence of accomplishments is quite uniform
  10. Fine Motor Skills
    • fined-tuned movements
    • ex. finger dexterity

    • infants have hardly any control over fine motor skills at birth
    • infants have many components of what later become finely coordinated arm, hand, and finger movements
  11. Reaching plays the greatest role in infant cognitive development of all motor skills.
    • Prereaching - stems from reflexive movements
    • Reaching - with 2 hands, then with 1
    • Ulnar grasp
    • Pincer grasp
  12. Sequencing of Motor Development
    Cephalocaudal Trend (Gross motor skills)

    Proximodistal Trend (Fine motor skills)
  13. Cephalocaudal Trend
    Gross motor skills

    Motor control of head occurs prior to control over arms and trunk, which occurs prior to control over legs
  14. Proximodistal Trend
    Fine motor skills

    Motor control of head, trunk, and arms occurs prior to control of hands, then fingers
  15. Vision
    the least developed sense at birth

    taste, smell, touch, and hearing are well developed at birth
  16. Visual Preferences
    • 1963, Robert Fantz discovered that infants look at different things for different lengths of time
    • also found that 2-day-old infants look longer patterned stimuli than at single-colored discs
  17. Face Perception
    • Newborns prefer to look at human faces
    • Face perception present from birth
  18. Depth Perception
    • Visual Cliff Experiment (Gibson & Walk,1960)
    • Most crawling babies avoided the cliff and readily crawled over the non cliff side
    • concluded that by crawling age, we perceive depth
  19. Hearing
    • Hearing begins prenatally
    • after birth, infants responded in a certain way when mothers read them a story that they had read to them during the 6 weeks prior to birth
    • this finding suggests that the infants recognized that story's pattern and tone - something they had only been exposed to prenatally
  20. Hearing appears to begin during prenatal developement
    At birth, newborns will react to sounds heard during prenatal development (cat in the hat study)
  21. Taste
    Taste preferences probably begin in utero

    • Taste buds emerge about 6-7 weeks gestation
    • Prefer sweet for the first 4 months of life (breast milk)
    • by 4 mos. prefer salty over plain water (prepares us for solid foods)
    • 2-hr-old newborns made different facial expressions when they tasted sweet, sour, and bitter solutions
    • Sensitivity to taste may be present prior to birth due to increased swallowing of a near-term fetus when saccharin was added to the amniotic fluid
  22. Amniotic Fluid is rich with tastes and smells that vary with mother's diet
    Prenatal experiences influence newborn taste and smell preferences
  23. Mother's diet has influences on the taste of babies
  24. Smell
    • within hours of birth, newborns will latch onto mothers breast and begin sucking 
    • (if one breast is washed, newborn latches onto unwashed breast, indicating that newborns are guided by smell)
  25. Smell (cont.)
    • Babies prefer the scent of their mother and a lactating breast
    • at 4 days, breast-fed babies prefer the smell of their own mother's breast to that of another lactaing mother
    • bottle-fed babies prefer scent of lactating women over the smell of the formula
  26. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    Children actively construct their knowledge of the world through their direct interactions with the physical world
  27. (Piaget) Assimilation
    • Incorporation of new knowledge into existing schemes
    • Modify experience to fit current schemas
  28. (Piaget) Accommodation
    • Adjusting existing schemes to fit within new information
    • Modify schema to fit new experiences
  29. Piaget
    Children progress through a set of stages that makes qualitatively distinct thinking patterns at each stage
  30. Piaget's Stages of Development
    • Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
    • Preoperational Stage (2-7)
    • Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)
    • Formal Operational Stage (11-15)
  31. Sensorimotor Stage
    Key Development - Object Permanence

    schemes involve gathering sensory information and operating physically (motor) on the environment (sucking, grasping, pushing...)

    Child is learning connections between sensations and motor actions

    No information is held in the head
  32. Sensorimotor Stage
    Circular Reaction
    Primary Circular Reactions
    Secondary Circular Reactions
  33. Circular Reaction
    occurs when an infant chances upon a new action and tries to repeat it
  34. Primary Circular Reaction
    • action and responses both involve infant's own body
    • ex. suck own thumb
    • ex. thumb sucking, grabbing and holding feet
    • the organization of two separate body schemes (movements)
  35. Secondary Circular Reactions
    • baby discovers and reproduces an interesting event outside of his owb body
    • ex. toy, object, different person, mobile

    • perform a single action to get a result
    • ex. kicking a mobile
  36. Secondary Circular Reactions
    action gets a response from another person or objrct, leading to baby's repeating original action
  37. Object Permanence
    Objects continue to exist even when they are not visible

    Seneorimotor stage ends with mental representations and object permanence
  38. Preoperational Thought Limitations
    • Egocentrism
    • Animism
    • Centration
  39. Egocentrism
    • Inability to distinguish the the perspective of others from ones own
    • How is it measured? - By three moutain task
  40. Animism
    Belief that inanimate abjects have life-like qualities and are capable of action
  41. Centration
    • founded during preoperational stage
    • inability to attend to more than one aspect of a situation
    • lack of conservation
  42. Conservation
    the principle that the amount of a substance is unaffected by changes in its appearance
  43. Conservation tasks incorporate centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility
  44. Conservation Tasks
    Concrete thinkers can solve

    thinkers can't solve
  45. Concrete Operational Stage
    • Conservation - horizontal decalage, decentration
    • Classification - seriation, transitivity
  46. Horizontal Decalge
    different aspects of the same skill emerge at different times
  47. Decentration
    focusing on serveral aspects of a situation and relating them, rather than centering on just one
  48. Seriation
    • ability to order items along a dimension
    • ex. place rocks in a line according to size
  49. Transitivity
    ability to mentally seriate
  50. Formal Operational Stage
    • Abstract
    • Idealistic
    • Logical
  51. Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
    • Children actively construct knowledge and understanding through social interactions
    • Learning is a socially-mediated activity
    • Cognitive development depends on societal tools and cultural context
  52. Zone of Proximal Development
    The distance b/w actual development level determined by individual problem solving and the level of potential development determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers

    what the child can do independently and under-guided
  53. Scaffolding
    the support a learner might receive from a more capable peer, teacher, or parent that allows the learner to achieve a higher level of skill or understanding than would be possible for the learner to achieve alone
  54. Scaffolding
    • Support level must be continuously changed to match the child's perfermance level
    • Adjusting the support to keep the task within the child's ZPD
  55. Infant Imitation (Meltzoff)
    suggested that imitative abilities are biologically based because infants can imitate facial expresstions within 72 hours of birth
  56. Attention
    the process of focusing mental resources

    • Sustained Attention
    • Selective Attention
    • Divided Attention
  57. Sustained Attention
    ability to detect and respond to small changes in the environment
  58. Selective Attention
    ability to focus on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli
  59. Divided Attention
    ability to allocate attention to more than one stimulus
  60. Habituation Paradigms
    • Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated exposure
    • ex. heart rate, sucking rate, breathing rate...
  61. Dishabituation Paradigm
    Recovery of respnsiveness after a change of stimulus
  62. Habituation/Dishabituation Paradigms
    • After habituating to a stimulus, infants respond to a change in stimuli (dishabituate) 7 hours after birth
    • demonstrate that infants can sustain attention to novel stimuli
    • sustained attention is the earliest to develop
  63. Sustained Attention is the earliest to develop.
  64. Developmental Summary of Attention Patterns
    • Sustained - during infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood
    • Selective - preschool, childhood, early adolescence
    • Divided - adolescence
  65. Sustained Attention
    • detect and respond to small changes
    • earliest to develop
    • during infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood
  66. Selective Attention
    • focus on relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli
    • preschool, childhood, early adolescence
  67. Divided Attention
    • allocate attention to more than one stimulus
    • adolescence
  68. Forms of Memory
    • Short term Memory
    • Working Memory
    • Long term Memory
    • Explicit Memory
    • Implicit Memory
  69. Short Term Memory
    Limited capacity (7+ or -2) and limited duration
  70. Working Memory
    Active "workspace" where info is accessible for current use
  71. Long Term Memory
    Huge capacity, potentially very long duration (decades)
  72. Explicit Memory
    conscious memory of facts and experiences

    • Episodic memory - personally experienced events
    • Semantic Memory - general information
  73. Implicit Memory
    non-concious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly (memory without awareness)
  74. Episodic memory
    personally experienced events
  75. Semantic Memory
    general information
  76. Memory in infancy
    • 3 months - infants can remember perceptual-motor information (Rovee-Collier)
    • Some researchers argue this is implicit memory rather than explicit memory
    • Primitive implicit memory system
  77. Memory in Childhood
    • Short term memory increases over the childhood years
    • Digit-span test
    • Strategy use emerges during late childhood years
    • Rehearsal and repetition emerge before imagery
    • Imagery emerges before elaboration
  78. Memory in Adulthood
    Declined - Working memory & Episodic memory

    Less Declined - Implicit memory
  79. Measures of habituation and dishabituation predict childhood IQ scores
  80. Habituation and dishabituation speed found during the first 6 mos. of infancy are related to adolescent IQ scores
  81. Precessing speed is a component of intelligence
  82. Intelligence in Adulthood
    Processing speed began to decline in early aduldhood
  83. Fluid Intelligence
    • Information processing capabilities, reasoning, processing speed
    • Declines into middle adulthood
  84. Crystallized Intelligence
    • our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
    • increased into middle adulthood
Card Set
HDFS Exam 2