1. I.                   New Directions and New Crises
    • a.      Emperor William II embarked on an activist foreign policy dedicated to enhancing German power by finding Germany’s rightful “place in the sun”
    •                                                               i.      One change in Bismarck’s foreign policy was to drop the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia, which he viewed sa being at odds with Germany’s alliance with Austria
  2. Ending Alliance
    • 1.      Ending of the alliance achieved what Bismarck feared: brought France and Russia together
    • a.      Long isolated by Bismarck’s policies, republican France leaped at the chance to draw closer to tsarist Russia, and in 1894, the two powers concluded a military alliance
  3. Next ten years
    • a.      During the next ten years, German policies abroad caused the British to draw closer to France
    •                                                               i.      1907: a loose confederation of Great Britain, France, and Russia—the Triple Entente—opposed the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
  4. Europe divided
    •                                                               i.      Europe divided into ttwo opposing camps that became more uncompromising
    • 1.      When the members of the two alliances became involved in a new series of crises between 1908 and 1913 over control of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, the stage was set for WWI
  5. Crises in the Balkans
    • a.      Crises in the Balkans, 1908-1913
    •                                                               i.      Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 initiated a chain of events
    • 1.      Since 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina under protection of Austria, but in 1908, Austria annexed them 
  6. SErbia
    • a.      Serbia outraged because it dashed their hopes of creating a large Srebian kingdom that would include omost o fhte souther Slavs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This is why Austria annexed them because a large Serbia would threaten unity of Austro-Hungarian Empire, with its large Slavic population
  7. Russians
    • 1.      Russians, as protectors of their fellow Slavs and desiring to increase their own authority in the Balkans, supported the Serbs and opposed the Austrian action
    • a.      Backed by the Russians, the Serbs mobilized against Austria
  8. William II
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At this point, Williiam II invtervened and demanded htat the Russians accept Austria’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina or war with Germany
    • b.      Weakened from their defeat in the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-05, the Russians backed down and now vowed revenge
  9. European attention
    •                                                               i.      European attention returned to the Balkans in 1912 when Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece organized the Balkan Leauge and defeated the Ottomans in the First Balkan War
    •                                                             ii.      When victorious allies were unable to agree on how to divide the conquered Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Albania, the Second Balkan War erupted in 1913
  10. SEcond Balkan War
    •                                                               i.      Second Balkan War erupted in 1913
    • 1.      Greece, Serbia, Romania dn the Ottoma Empire attacked and defeated Bulgaria.
    • a.      Result: Bulgaria obtained only a small part of Macedonia, and most of the rest was divided between Serbia and Greece
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Serbia’s aspirations were left unfulfilled
  11. Two Balkan wars
                                                                  i.      The two Balkan Wars left the inhabitants embittered and created more tensions among the great powers
  12. One of serbia's ambitions
    • a.      One of Serbia’s major ambitions: acquire Albanian territory that would give it a port on the Adriatic
    •                                                               i.      London Conferece: arranged by Austria at end of two Balkan wars; Austrians blocked Serbia’s wishes by creating an independent Albania
    •                                                             ii.      The Germans, as Austrian allies, supported
  13. Serbian nationalists
    •                                                               i.      Serbian nationalists saw Austrians as monstrous
    • 1.      Russians also upset and knew they couldn’t back down in the event of a confrontation with Austria and Germany
  14. Austria-Hungary
    • a.      Austria-Hugnary achieved aim, but saw Serbia as threat that must be crushed
    •                                                               i.      Meanwhile, French and Russian governments renewed their alliance and promised each other they would not back down at next crisis
    •                                                             ii.      British drew closer to France
    • 1.      Two armed camps viewed each as suspicious 
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