Describe the types of women’s social movements in Latin America.-SAFA
- 1. Human Rights:under dictatorship women were the only dissenting voice and focused on primarily thier roles as mothers ie. mothers of the plaza de mayo: where women wore placards w/ pictures of their "disappeared:" relatives in the plaza.
- 2. Communal consumption movemenents
- concern for poverty/inability to provide basic needs to fam.
- petitioned the gov for assistance increasing- communal kitchens, daycares, water, and sanitation programs.
How is contribution to production linked to women’s status?
- public/private sphere different;y valued as women contribute more to production.
- Often rural women status is higher than urban since women own land and work on farms.
Describe women’s roles in Latin America—give examples.
- women were often tapped for maquilas and other "off shore" jobs(lower wages and abuse in the workplace
- women have fewer children and more are working in formal and informal economies
- higher edu. leads women to mobilize for rights
- womens economic contributions =push for more egalitarian relationships
Be familiar with Fisher and Hendrickson’s Tecpan Guatemala. How have the events in Guatemala affected identity?
What language is spoken in Tecpan?
Describe Mayan belief systems.
When and why did Classic Mayan civilization collapse?
- in 1200 due to:
- over population-stretches resources
- drought- loss of crops or food (crisis)
- Internal conflict- ascribed system left many w/o access to wealth.
What is the Popol Vuh?
The book of creation of the Quiche Mayans.
What is kux? Anima?
- all living creatures are composed of
- anima-vital spirit or life force that makes humans kux activate. Can be both good and bad
- gives mayans a way of understanding "self" can leave the body
What is La Violencia?
- war pitted by gov against those who were interested in redistribution of wealth
- long history of repression of indians by ladinos-most brutal colonial experience.
- extreme division of wealth.
Describe the role of the U.S. in the civil war in Guatemala.
- United fruit(uncrowned king)->buy up prod. backed by U.S. military
- in 1954 CIA sponsored "operation success" to overthrow guatemalan gov.
- eisenhower had stock in UF and U.S sent 80 million in aid over for 3 yrs.
What is United Fruit?
- Uncrowned King of central ameria (Dole)bought up means of production, land built railroad and ports on indian communal plots. owned 3.5 million acres of land.
Describe potential reasons for the rise of Protestantism or Evangelical Protestantism in Latin America.
- attributed to Rios Montt(born again dictator), violence, and the earthquake(plague?)
- 1 appeal is the rejection of alcohol-> women joining first because husband has drinking problem
- linked to small cooperative groups
- access to loans through churches (seeds, fertilizer, etc.)
Be familiar with agriculture and economics in Guatemala—how does globalization play a role?
- Traditionally Tecpan relied on local production/consumption(auto consumption) inpart because of land and lack of surplus
- corn/maize was a staple for the mayan diet
- historically spent 1/2 year on plantations (Uniited fruit)
- in 1960s began to sale broccoli and snowpeas (major source of income)-> little local demand
- Globalization:caused a major shift in how things are grown->sanity and quality control issues->need more inputs->sold to middle men or cooperatives(buy inputs together)
- smaller producers sell to coyotes--little negotion=low prices
What is the impact of broccoli sales on the community as a whole?
(depends on when growers enter)
- both increase & decrease community organization(cooperatives/non-cooperatives)
- more employment in processing
- tends to favor large producers (volume sales)
- tends to exclude women from much of the market practices
How are men and women different in how they display their Mayan identities.
- individuals use language and dress to identify as Mayan
- rurals and women are usually monlingual while men and urban tend to bilingual.
- Women are often seen as more indigenous as they wear "traje"
- men can and do wear traditional clothing but associated with community
- women are "braver" than men
What were the direct results of the earthquake in Tecpan?
- The direct results were sever and effected most of downtown areas which authors say set Tecpan up for the things that happen for next 25 years.
- destroyed houses, town which brought in a great deal of help (unwanted and uneeded)
- change tecapanos psyche:things can change in a second and changed how they viewed the state
What is culture?
language, customs, beliefs, traditions
What happened to Ana in Tecpan?
Former military commissioner Victor Vicente Poroj raped 11-year-old Ana Maria Pichol Guarcax on four occasions in December 1999. A forensic doctor in Chimaltenango confirmed the crime. The father, according to indigenous practice, demanded an explanation from Poroj. Poroj intimidated and threatened the family for being part of a citizens group, and filed a complaint of slander. The prosecutor assigned to the case, Villar Anleu, gave little importance to the case and appeared to resent the father for bringing the case. The father requested that the prosecutor be excused for bias. The father was imprisoned for 2 days for the slander charge against him. On February 19, several days before the trial was scheduled to open, Melchor Pastor Hernandez and Juvencio Ixmay kidnaped Ana Maria's older sister Marta Elena. Poroj continued to threaten the father, but also offered him a bribe to drop the case.
What role does tourism play in cultural revitalization?
tourism caused impetus to enact culture(i.e. perform thier culture. caused a revaluation of indigneous identity.
Be familiar w/ cuenca to queens -what is it about? Why is this significant? Be able to name and identify people in the book and the significance of identity. How might one define identity? How do we see identities change?
What is subjectivity? What is objectivity?
What is family biography?
- incorporates concern for the 'life cycle' of a family to show how their life is changing
- considers multiple perspectives from different family members, and anthropologist.
concerned with the inter-relationships btwn where ppl come from and where they go. Goods, monry and people move back and forth changing BOTH places
economic factors that influence migration
- export economy- economy geared towards export of raw materials, panama canal increased trade to u.s.
- Booms: cacao-1920s "Panama Hat" 1920s-1940 worn by people that built the canal but made in equador & bananas
- shrimp farming
- Growth of some cities
- gyaquil squatter settlements
- takeover of unused land (tax non complient)
- "communal" orientation towards basic infastructure
social distinctions found in ecuador
- 1. elite: descent to Spain have social prestige (palanca) usually intermarry to increase political power. control gov. arts and church view migration w/ disdain
- 2.nouveau riche(new wealth): none of the civic & "cultured" orientation of elites. mercentile success(transnational migrationa boom for them) want to marry elite->more social power.
- 3. working class: primarily mestizo have a long history in the city, government employees, small bussiness owners
- 4. cholos/cholas:originally rural actually mestizo but have maintained the traditional style and dress.
- -cholo boy: elite viewpoint cholos attempting to reach a social level that is inappropriate.
- 5. Indians: very few from this region complete mestizorization
- used as an insult and symbol of resistance
What is a formal economy? informal?
what is a chola cuencana?
when cholas are "folkloric" they are desirable serve as a symbol of Cuenca's old world/new civic myth.
what makes a good father in ecuador?
be a good provider and be there for the kids as far as being active in their lives and giving advice
What is the devil story about
Is a about two sisters who are poor one marries a local man who is a drunk and cant cant provide the other sister is not sympathetic and is determined to marry rich. She marries rich who turns into the devil at the wedding and barely escapes
how did Vicente get to the u.s.
the "easy way" he goes by plane with a fake passport.
what does Vicente say about poverty & inequality?
what do we learn from the devil story
- serves as a parable to reinforce moral values
- don't leave your family behind in the pursuit of wealth.
- reinforce value of reciprocity(have your siblings back) sibling rivalry is unacceptable
Neoliberalism in Ecuador
- 1980-1990s=high debt
- borrowed based on unrealized oil revenues -6billion
- saw "restructuring" through international lenders & a neoliberal ideology-gov reduced support for edu., health,privatized state companies and removed agricultural subsidies
rural to urban migration
- tied to "booms" cities blosspm during booms as money becomes concentrated in specific locations
- leavimg rural area to go to urban areas the poor migrate but no the poorest of the poor. Often land poor but seeking urban benefits
Mayan belief systems
- natural and human world intersect- held together by a tree of life whose branches reach to heaven(gods) and the underworld are connected.
- offerings made to gods and concern for ancestors