Patho Exam 2 - leukocyte disorders

  1. What is a WBC called?
  2. Which leukocyte maintains normal host defenses against invading microbes and foreign substances? (bacteria)
  3. Which leukocyte plays a role in allergic reactions and parasite infections?
  4. Which leukocyte in involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions?
  5. These leukocytes have granules:
    neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
  6. These leukocytes do not contain granules:
    lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages
  7. These leukocytes participate in the immune response to defend against microorganisms:
  8. All bood cells are derived from....
    pluripotent stem cells
  9. What is a granule?
    a lysosome!
  10. What is a monocyte called when it enters the tissues?
  11. Macrophages play a role in inflammation and immune response (T/F):
  12. What is neutrophilia indicative of?
    bacterial infection
  13. What is a "left shift" and what does it mean?
    increased proportion of neutrophils and premature neurtophil precursor cells....INFECTION
  14. What is neutropenia?
    decreased neutrophils in blood, SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION
  15. What is another name for neutropenia?
  16. What is lymphocytosis?
    increased proportion of lymphocytes....indicates infection, particularly VIRAL (especially in children)

    Normally, lymphocytes are 20-40% of circulating WBCs in the body
  17. What can cause lymphadenopathy?
    infection, autoimmune disease, malignancy
  18. Is infectious mononucleosis viral or bacterial?

    infection of B-lymphocytes
  19. Most adults have not been exposed to mononucleosis. (T/F)
    False. 90% have been exposed.
  20. Mononucleosis causes a proliferation of granulocytes (T/F)
    False. It causes lymphocytes to proliferate (it is VIRAL, not bacterial).
  21. What virus usually causes mono?
  22. What happens in mono after the unaffected B-cells mount an antibody response?
    Cytotoxic T-cells (CD8/"Downey" cells) are activated
  23. What are some S&S of EBV?
    fever, fatigue, sore throat
  24. Which type of lymphoma is more common in the US, T or B?
    B cell lymphoma
  25. What are the two type of lymphomas?
    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  26. This is the 5th most common type of cancer death in the US
  27. You are most likely to develop NHL as a child, risk decreases with age (T/F).
    FALSE. average age is 65yo...risk increases with age
  28. Men are more likely to develop NHL. T/F
  29. Most NHLs are B cell (T/F).
    True. 85%
  30. Burkitt lymphoma is a B cell lymphoma.
    TRUE. B for Burkitt, B for B-cell
  31. This is the most common type of childhood cancer in Central Africa.
    Brukitt Lymphoma
  32. Burkitt lymphoma is caused by a chromosomal 8 translocation. T/F
  33. Burkitt lymphoma can be cured. T/F
    More than half can be cured with intensive chemo.
  34. You are more likely to develop Burkitt lymphoma if you are immunocomprimised. T/F
  35. Burkit lymphoma grows slowly. T/F
    False...rapid, aggressive (fast growing) B cell NHL
  36. Hodgkin Lymphoma diagnosis has a grim prognosis.
    Not necessarily; 85% 5 year survival rate, high cure rate
  37. If you have mono, you will be immune to HL.
    FALSE. Increased risk with pt with hx of mono (~20% of the time)
  38. What type of lymphoma is characterized by Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells?
  39. When are you most likely to develop HL?
    • 15-40
    • 55-74
  40. Hodgkin lymphoma originates in the lymph node. T/F
  41. Stage of Hodgkin's with single lymph node region
    Stage 1
  42. Stage of Hodgkin's with two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm
    Stage 2
  43. Stage of Hodgkin's with involvement of lymph node regions on both sides of the diaphragm.
    Stage 3
  44. Stage of Hodgkin's with multiple foci of involvement of one or more extralymphatic organs or tissues.
    Stage 4
  45. Lymph node involvement/enlargement of neck and shoulders are rare in HL.
    False - 80 to 90% of the time the neck or shoulder nodes are involved
  46. What is the most common type of cancer in children and adolescents?
  47. Leukemia is caused by rapid proliferation of highly differentiated cells. T/F
    FALSE...POORLY differentiated cells (immature)
  48. The type of leukemia in the bone marrow
    myelogenous (bone marrow makes RBCs and PLTs)
  49. The type of leukemia in the B cells
    lymphocytic (most involve B cells)
  50. If you have Downs, you have a higher risk of leukemia. T/F
    True. 10x the risk.
  51. The WBCs associated with acute leukemia are more immature than those in chronic leukemia.
    True. The WBCs in chronic are still abnormal, but nore mature than the acute type.
  52. The most common type of leukemia in children is...
    ALL (acute lymphoblastic/lymphocytic leukemia)
  53. How is ALL diagnosed?
    bone marrow biopsy
  54. How do plasma cell neoplasms cause anemia?
    More plasma cells = less room for RBCs
  55. How do plasma cell neoplasms lead to easy infections?
    more plasma cells = less room for WBCs
  56. What is the most common type of plasma cell neoplasm?
    Multiple myeloma (MM)
  57. Why is thrombocytopenia possible with plasma cell neoplasms?
    more plasma cells = less room for platelets
  58. Atom Bomb survivors and workers at nuclear reactors have a higher incidence of this type of neoplasm:
    multiple myeloma (MM) radiation could be a cause
  59. Bence-Jones proteins are light chains of antibodies detectible in the serum and urine and are associated with...
    Multiple myeloma...lead to proteinuria
  60. Most common clinical manifestations of MM:
    • infection
    • kidney disease
    • hypercalcemia, compression fractures,
    • amyloidosis
    • abnormal bleeding, serum hyper-viscosity
  61. The antibody proteins that build up in the bone marrow and cause blood to thicken or damage the kidneys in multiple myeloma are:
    IgG or IgA
  62. In multiple myeloma, bone is reabsorbed and destroyed. T/F
    true - osteoblasts proliferate
  63. What is it called when the alternate form of M protein deposits in various locations, which displaces and harms normal tissues (heart, kidney, etc)
  64. Most common cause of death in MM is...
  65. 2nd most common cause of death in MM is...
    kidney disease
Card Set
Patho Exam 2 - leukocyte disorders
Hemotologic cards for exam 2 starting from WBCs (after anemia) and ending prior to hemostasis