What are the four types of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous
What are tissues?
Tissues are a group of similar cells that usually have a common embryonic origin that function together to carry out specialized activities.
What are Epithelial Tissues
They from barriers to protect exposed surfaces. They line the insides of body cavities and organs like intestines and hear, also forms glands
What are connective tisses?
Not just muscles and tendons but basically all tissues that provide support (skeleton) and fill space (fat)
What are muscle tissues?
They provide support, movement and heat generation.
Are epithelial cells polar or nonpolar?
What do epithelial cells "top" layer function as?
A functional surface, the top surface contain cilia/microvilli
What is epithelial bottom?
Where most of organelles are clustered.
What is the inner surface of epithelial connective tissue connected to?
How many layers does the basement membrane have?
They have two layers.
What are the two layers of the epithelial tissues?
- Basal Lamina
- Reticular Lamina
What are the functions of Epithelial tissues?
- Provides structure for sendory nerves
What are the six classes of Epithelial tissues?
- Simple Squamous
- Simple cuboidal
- Simple Columnar
- Startified Squamous
- Stratified Cuboidal
- Stratified Columnar
What are the two types of simple squamous cells?
- Mesothelium- lines the ventral cavity
- Endothelium- lines the heart/ blood vessels
Where are simple squamous cells found? Function?
In the lungs, allow for diffusion and filteration
Where are simple cuboidal epithelium cells found? Function?
Secretion and Absorption; Kidneys and Salvatory glands. Rarest kind.
Where are Simple columnar epithelium found? Function?
Absorbsion and secretion, intestine and stomach
Where are pseudostratified columnar epithelium cells found? Function?
Secretion- trachea, respiratory tract
Where are stratified squamous epithelium cells found? Function?
Protects and is found keratinized in the skin.
Where are where are stratified cuboidal cells found? Function?
They are the most rare. They are for protection and is are in sweat glands
Where are stratifies columnar cells found? Function?
Protection and secretion and found in the male urethra and pharynx
Where are Transitional epithelium cells found? Function?
Stretches, bladder, you can notice it cause the cell shapes change
What are the two categories of glands?
- Endocrine ( ductless glands)
- Exocrine (secretes hormones)
What are globlet cells?
A single cell mucus gland
How many different functional cassifications of exocrine glands? What are their names? Functions?
- There are three.
- Merocine secretion- product released by exocytosis ( most common type)
- Apocrine secretion- top part of cell pinches of rest of cell repairs itself and repeates the process.
- Holocrine secretion- cell explodes which causes pimples
What are the most common connective tissues
Bone, Fat, Blood
What are the functions of connective tissues?
Connective and support stuctures of body.
What is ground substance?
connective tissues are defined by specialied cells withen a matrix of extracellular protein fibers and filter fluid
What does "blasts" mean?
A baby cell
What are chondroblasts?
they secrete cartolages
What are osteoblasts?
They secrete bone matrix
What are fibroblast?
they make most other tissue
Whats associated with ground substance (found in connective tissues)?
- Glycosminoglycans= sugars
- Proteoglycans= proteins
- Hyaluronic acid
- Together with protein fibers+ matrix = biological glue
What are the functions of connective tissues?
- Structual framework
- Support, protection for organs (kidneys)
- Energy reserves- lipids
- Defense - immune system
What are adipocytes?
Fat cells (connective tissues)
What are melanocytes
They are the cells that give you colour/ pigment.
What are fibroblasts. What are the three types
- Cell types that secretes its matrix
- Collagen-very ropy and strong
- Reticular- forms stroma of organs (grape looking)
- Elastin-Helps strech and recoil
What are menchymal cells?
undifferenciated precurser cells to fibroblasts, macrophange and other connective tissue cell.
What are the carious cells of the immune system
Macrophage, Microphages, lymphocytes, and mast cells
What are macrophages
A cell of the immunce system. They are Fixed or free. They eat foreign substances. 1st line of defense.
What are Microphages
A cell of the immunce system. Smaller phagocytic cells
What are lymphocytes?
Plamsa cells that produce antibodies. A cell of the immunce system.
What are mast cells?
A cell of the immunce system. they contain histamine and heparine- they cause inflammation.
What are loose connective tissues? Which are they?
- They are a connective tissue. they are a shock absober and also 3d structure for soft organs
- 1- Stoma is composed of teticular tissue
- 2- Areolar tissue which makes the layer between skin and underlying muscle
- 3- Adipose tissue- for lipid storage and heat generation
What are the dense connective tissues (2 types)
- They are mainly collagen
- Dense and Irregular.
What is loose regular connective tissue?
- Fibers arranged in parallel and have strength in primary in one direction.
- ex. tendon (muscle to bone) Ligaments (bone-bone)
What is irregular connective tissue?
An interwoven net of give strengh in all direction
What is connective tissue proper?
Thoes types of cells which live and function in extracellular matrix.
What fluid connective tissue?
Distinct cell propulation in fluid matrix (blood, lymph) Aalso have suspended proteins - soluble, not fibrous (RBC's, WBC's and Platelets)
What are RBC's
What is white blood cells
What are platelets
The thing in blood that isnt RBC or WBCs
Which are the supporting connective tissues?
Bone and Cartilage.
What is cartilage?
- Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) in think gel of proteoglycans
- There are three types
What are the three types of cartilages?
- Elastic- nose ear epiglottis, lots elastin fibers (heals slowly)
- Hyaline Cartilages (ends of long bones, nose larynx, trachea and fetal)
- Fibrocartilage- little ground substance and lots of collagen