meeting that party members attend to decide policies and change candidates to run for office
- is a group of members of the United States
- Congress that meets to pursue common legislative objectives
- refers to the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal
- agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation.
- A provision attached to a bill- to which it may or
- may not be related- in order to secure its passage or defeat.
- Vote that prevents a proposed action from occurring or being
Pork- barrel spending
- unnecessary government expenditures that were allocated for
- political reasons.
Pork- barrel legislation
- bring home the bacon; special projects or
- appropiations that are intended to benefit members district or state.
- the judiciary of the United States which is
- responsible for interpreting and enforcing federal laws
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
an agency that administers civil services, laws, rules, and regulations.
Who appoints members of the Federal Judiciary with
consent of whom?
Appointed by the president and approved by the senate.
The list of potential cases that reach the Supreme Court.
In criminal action the person or party accused of an offense
The party initiating a civil lawsuit.
leader of the party with most members
leader of party with 2nd most members
ensure party discipline in a legislature; communicate between majority and minority leader
strategy to present bill from being voted in
3/5 vote that quickly ends a debate in Senate
permanent committee in a legislature usually focusing on a policy area. Most durable committee; source of most bills.
appointed committee for special function that is beyond authority
committee with membership from both houses of congress
committees appointed by house and senate to resolve a bill
Know the process of how a Bill becomes a Law
bill introduced, committees hearing votes, floor nation debate House and Senate, president signs bill.
indirect veto by President in retaining an unsigned bill for 10 days causing it to die.
2/3 vote in the House and Senate
2 or more legislators that agree to trade votes on a bill
government benefits for local constituency
Congressional Agencies and examples of each
- General Accounting
- Office: GAO, the largest; monitors how agency spends money
- Congressional Budget Office: CBO,
- Congressional Research Service: CRS,
- oldest; provides research, analysis and information for Congress
by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor.
agreement to take a lower charge to do less time
What is the major function of Congress?
Who is responsible for the scheduling of bills in the Senate and House?
House: Rules committee
Which state has the most seats in the House of
Members of Congress have a stronger incentive for
which, oversight or lawmaking?
organization of non-elected officials who implement the rules, laws and function of constitution
What is the major function of the federal
Process of putting new policies into practice
Know the 4 (5) Types of
federal agencies and examples of each:
- 2. Independent
- Executive Agency: CIA, NASA
- 3. Independent
- Regulating Agency: EPA, FEC, SEC
- 4. Government
- Corporations: Postal Service, PBS
5. Presidential Commissions
government service in which employees are employed by merit system and exams
process of hiring government employees based in ability to perform a job
- president/political official fills government positions with
- his choosing
federal law that prohibits employees in executive branch from engaging in partisan politics (1939)
*the cant elect a party
deals with rules, contains most routine publications and public notices of government agencies
(list of rules and the official record of the federal bureaucracy)
1983 based on Merit System and made Civil System
Public funds are given to people because they need it and they meet requirements (Medicare, Social Security)
Judicial branch can review actions of legislative and executive branches
crime against public order
legal rights between individuals
dispute out of a central case that can be settled by legal methods
(1) Supreme Court
How many members?
(13) Appellate Courts
empowered how an appeal of a trial (circuit) court of tribunal
(94) District courts
(Trial Courts) average general trial courts; TDC, 678 judges
court that hears case for the first time (trial)
power of Supreme Court to review and change decisions of lower courts
Precedent (stare decisis)
rule established in previous case to decide similar cases
*decision made by higher courts that is binding on all other federal courts.
Writ of Habeus Corpus
court order requiring an explanation of why a prisioner is held in custody.
not having sufficient evidence leading to release the prisoner
Writ of Certiorari (often just referred to as
a formal writ used to bring a case before the supreme court.
Amicus Curiae Brief
someone involved in a case to assist a court in deciding
Opinion of the Court
gives verdict and explains reasons for decision
judge disagrees with majority and decision
judge agrees with the majority but differs in the reason.
determines whether a criminal indictment will be issued
most common type of jury, citizens brought together to listen to evidence presented by prosecution and defense
Sandra O’ Conner
First woman Senator (1980 Reagan)
John Roberts, Republican
Who do senate confirm?
Senate confirms judges appointed by president
Three types of Federal employees
1. Presidential Appointee
2. Civil Service
3. Senior Executive Service
What do bureaucrats rely on to promote their agency's goals?
4. Their expert knowledge
- 5.The backing up of the president and
- 6. The support of the interests that
- benefit from the agency’s program.