Science Final

  1. wetland
    land perodically underwater.
  2. plankton
    • organsisms that can't swim against currents. Drifters.
    • drifting plants= phytoplankton
    • drifting animals= zooplankton
  3. Nekton
    Free-swimming organisms.
  4. Benthos
    Bottom-dwelling organisms.
  5. Littoral zone
    Nutrient rich zone near the shore. Abundant and diverse plants and animals.
  6. Benthic zone
    Zone at the bottom.
  7. Eutrophication
    increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem.
  8. Estuary
    • Area in which fresh water from a river mixes with salt water from the ocean.
    • Many nutrients and abundant life.
  9. Salt Marshes
    • Where rivers deposit mineral-rich mud in estuaries.
    • Absorb pollutants, protect inland, and serve as "nursery."
  10. Mangrove swamps
    • Trees growing in shallow salt water.
    • Tropical and Subtropical.
    • Protect coast and are large habitats.
  11. Barrier Islands
    • Islands that run parallel to shores.
    • Protect mainland and wetland from storms and waves.
  12. Coral reefs
    • limestone ridges built by coral polyps (limestone skeletons).
    • Senstivive in warm, shallow water. House many organisms.
  13. Population
    All the members of a species living in the same place at the same time.
  14. Density
    Number of individuals per unit area.
  15. Dispersion
    • Distribution
    • Even, clumped, or random.
  16. Growth rate
  17. Reproductive potential
    The maximum number of offspring each individual can produce.
  18. Generation time
    Average time for a member of the population to reach reproduction age.
  19. Exponential growth
    • Population keeps growing faster.
    • Ex: 2 dogs -> 6 puppies. Those 3 pair dogs -> 6 more puppies each. Those 9 pairs (18 puppies) etc, etc.
  20. Carrying capacity
    The maximum population an ecosystem can support indefinately.
  21. density dependent
    Death due to high density (disease, predation, limiting resource, etc)
  22. Density independent
    • death not related to density.
    • Weather, disasters, age, etc.
  23. Niche
    A species' physical home, the environmental factors necessary for its survival, and it's interactions with other organisms.
  24. Competition
    • Different individuals or populations attempt to use the same limited resource.
    • Harmed Harmed
  25. Overlap
    When members of different species compete.
  26. Predation & Parasitism
    • species A feeds on species B.
    • Benefit harmed
  27. Mutualism
    • Each species benefits each other.
    • Ex: Bacteria breaks down food & you give it home, etc
  28. Commensalism
    • One species benefits & the other is not effected.
    • Ex: Flower lives on tree.
  29. Symbiosis
    • Two species live in close association.
    • Usually leads to coevolution.
  30. Biodiversity
    The number of different species in a given area.
  31. Gene
    Piece of DNA that codes for a specific trait that can be inherited by the offspring.
  32. Keystone species
    Species clearly critical to the functioning of an ecosystem.
  33. Ecotourism
    Tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas.
  34. Endangered species
    Species likely to become extinct if protective measures aren't taken immediately.
  35. Threatened species
    Species that has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if not protected.
  36. Exotic species
    Species not native to a particular region.
  37. Poaching
    Illegal hunting.
  38. Endemic species
    Species native and found in only a certain area.
  39. Germ plasm
    any form of genetic material usually in germ cells.
  40. Endangered Species Act
    • law that protects species in danger of extinction.
    • -USFWS must make a list of all threatened and endangered species
    • -These species can't be caught, killed, sold, or traded.
    • -Gov can't carry out anything that jeopardizes these species.
    • -USFWS must make a recovery plan for each of the species.
  41. Habitat conservation plan
    Plan that attempts to protect one or more species across large areas of land through trade-offs or agreements.
  42. Biodiversity Treaty
    Goal to preserve biodiversity and ensure the sustainable and fair use of genetic resources in all countries.
  43. ftcdyxuuhg
Card Set
Science Final
ch 6-18