GACE terms

  1. Basal reading series
    a comprehensive set of materials designed for the purpose of teaching reading
  2. Aesthetic literacy stance
    attention is geared towards having an emotional response to the text.
  3. Efferent Literacy stance
    attention is geared towards gathering information from a text
  4. Environmental print
    text found in the environment (sign, posters)
  5. intertextuality
    the process of constructing links between text and one's experience to other texts, or to outside knowledge.
  6. literacy/ stance dimension
    reader's attention is focused on textual cues.
  7. literature-based basal
    incorporating contemporary and classical literature in student anthologies.
  8. orthography
    the study of how language is organized in written text
  9. trade books
    books that are not designed to specifically teach reading ( found in library's and stores)
  10. text sets
    collections of books and other materials that are organized around a particular theme or concept
  11. Blending
    ability to combine individual phonemes to form words
  12. dialect
    a variety of language used by people in a particular geographic area.
  13. Grapheme
    smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word
  14. morpheme
    smallest linguistic unit that carries meaning
  15. onsets
    part of the single syllable word that precedes the vowel
  16. Phoneme
    smallest unit of sound in a language
  17. Phoneme addition
    ability to make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word
  18. Phoneme deletion
    recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is removed
  19. Phoneme identity
    ability to recognize the same sounds in different words
  20. Phoneme isolation:
    ability to recognize individual sounds in words
  21. Phoneme manipulation
    • blending, segmenting, deleting, adding, or
    • substituting phonemes
  22. Phoneme
    • substitution of one phoneme for another to make a new
    • word
  23. Phonemic
    • to consciously attend to sounds in language
    • (ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes)
  24. Phonemic
    • ability to articulate the sounds of the
    • word together
  25. Phoneme
    ability to recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the “odd” sound
  26. Phonemic segmentation
    • : ability to segment a word into the individual sounds
    • or phonemes
  27. Phonetics
    • : Studying how we articulate and segment various
    • phonemes (**this is DIFFERENT than phonemic awareness)
  28. Phonics:
    association between letter and sounds
  29. Phonics-first approach:
    Instructional materials and pedagogy that focuses on letters and sounds as the primary component of learning to read
  30. Phonics-oriented basal:
    • provides explicit and systematic instruction in
    • phonics. Stories are designed to teach letter-sound correspondence
  31. Phonological
    • (phonemic awareness is only one type of phonological awareness. Worded
    • differently, phonemic awareness is a subcategory of phonological awareness.)
    • Identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words,
    • syllables, onsets and rhymes, and phonemes. It also includes awareness of
    • sounds (i.e., rhyme, alliteration, and intonation).
  32. Rimes
    part of the single syllable word that includes the vowel and all succeeding consonants
  33. Segmentation:
    ability to break words into their individual phonemes
  34. Syllable
    word part that contains a vowel or vowel sound
  35. Analogy-based phonics:
    children use parts of known word families to identify unknown words
  36. Analytic phonics:
    children analyze letter-sound relationships in known words (they do not pronounce sounds in isolation)
  37. Code-breaking practice
    the focus is on the letter-sound relationship and structure of words
  38. Embedded phonics
    children use letter-sound relationships during the reading of connect texts
  39. Graphophonic:
    the letter-sound correspondence of words
  40. Onset-rime phonics instruction
    children identify the sound of the letter(s) before the first vowel (onset) in a one-syllable word and the sound of the remaining part of the word (rime)
  41. Phonics through spelling
    children segment words into phonemes to make words by writing letters for phonemes
  42. Synthetic phonics
    • children convert letters/letter combination into sounds and blend sounds to
    • make recognizable words
  43. Automaticity:
    • fast, effortless word recognition that comes with practice reading (refers only
    • to accurate, speedy word recognition-does
    • not account for expression).
  44. Fluency:
    ability to read a text quickly and accurately with intonation
  45. Independentreading level
    100-95% accuracy
  46. Instructionalreading leve
    95-90% accuracy
  47. Frustrationalreading leve
    90-below% accuracy
  48. Analogy
    noticing patterns in words to decode unfamiliar words
  49. Contextual vocabulary work
    invites students to learn words in context through sentences, scenarios, and drama
  50. Definitional vocabulary work:
    invites students to identify a number of aspects ofa word, such as a definition, synonym, antonym and category
  51. Direct vocabulary instruction:
    words learned through explicit strategies
  52. High-frequency words
    sight words that readers frequently encounter
  53. Indirect vocabulary learning
    words learned indirectly through seeing and hearing in various contexts
  54. Listening vocabulary:
    words we must know to understand what we hear
  55. Reading
    words we must know to understand what we read
  56. Speaking vocabulary
    words we must know to use when we speak
  57. Syntax:
    the study of the rules or patterned relations that govern the way words combine
  58. Vocabulary
    : words we must know to communicate effectively
  59. Writing vocabulary
    words we use in writing
  60. Word families
    word that share the same rime pattern
  61. Word study
    : examining the shades of sound, structure, and meaning of words
  62. Affixes
    : Linguist elements that are added to words to change the meaning
  63. Derivational suffix:
    show a meaning relationship between the word and the root word
  64. Etymology
    : the study of word origins
  65. Homographs
    words with same spelling but different pronunciation and meaning
  66. Homophone/homonym
    words that are pronounced the same but have different spelling and meaning
  67. Inflectional suffix
    the suffix changes the tense of the verb, indicates plurality, or demonstrates comparison
  68. Prefix:
    an affix that attaches to the beginning of a word
  69. Root word:
    word/word part that comes from another language
  70. Suffix:
    an affix that attaches to the end of a word
  71. Criterion-referenced:
    students are assessed on predetermined criteria
  72. Formative assessments:
    ongoing assessments that measure progress in the context ofthe activity
  73. High stakes tests:
    assessments that have consequential outcomes
  74. Informal reading inventory (IRI):
    reading assessment that is individuallyadministered to determine a student’s reading level
  75. Miscue:
    an unexpected response to printed text-omission, substitution, or insertion ofanother word
  76. Miscue analysis:
    an assessment that documents the miscues a reader makes whilereading aloud
  77. Norm-referenced:
    tests that compare student performance to a cross section of students at thesame grade in other parts of the country
  78. Portfolio systems:
    • : a collection of student work that documents growth and progress
    • over time
  79. Summative assessments:
    • assessments that sum up what a student has learned at a
    • predetermined point in time
  80. Stakeholders:
    a group of people interested in the results of summative assessments
  81. Codeswitch:
    a linguistic term meaning to alternate between one or more languages, dialects,or registers in a single stretch of talk.
  82. Cueing system:
    sets of cues or clues built into the structure and patterns of the language.
  83. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy:
    • Teaching into the academic and social needs of
    • culturally and linguistically diverse students
  84. Envisionment:
    • dynamic sets of ideas, images, questions, anticipations, and hunches that a
    • reader has while reading, speaking, or writing
  85. Emergent literacy:
    a perspective that focuses on the informal learning of literacyin home, preschool, or kindergarten settings
  86. Experience view:
    children need to experience prerequisite skills to acceleratereadiness (nature)
  87. Maturation view:
    • mental age is a determining factor in whether formal reading
    • instruction should begin
  88. Multimodal literacy:
    • : literacy practices that are carried across multiple
    • sites/texts/or media
  89. Reading First Initiative:
    • federal initiative to apply scientifically based reading
    • research and instruction in grades K-3.
  90. Schema:
    a mental set of representation
  91. Stance:
  92. the attitude or purpose one has for reading
  93. Think aloud:
    a strategy that encourages readers to stop and reflect on their ownmetacognitive processes
  94. Reader response theory:
    focuses on the reader or audience rather than the authoror text
  95. Psycholignuistics or top-down theory:
    • meaning is central to the reading process. The emphasis
    • moves from meaning to letters and sounds
  96. Transaction (Transactional theory):
    relationship between the reader and the text,whereby what is interpreted is mediated by the reader’s experiences and background
  97. Digital language experience approach:
    children use digital media to composelanguage experience stories
  98. DR-TA format:
    directed reading thinking activity to promote comprehension
  99. Flexible Grouping:
    Children are placed in groups based on com moninterests, strengths, or needs
  100. Four-resource model:
    A comprehensive view of reading that includes code breaking, textparticipant, text user, and critical practices
  101. Guided reading group:
    flexible reading groups based on students’ needs. Leveledtexts are commonly used.
  102. Independent reading/Sustained silent reading:
    a time during reader/writer workshopwhere students read selections of their own choosing
  103. Initiate-respond-evaluate:
    an interaction pattern whereby the teacher initiates a question, studentsrespond, and the teacher evaluates the response Integrated approach: code breaking is taught by using authenticpieces of literature
  104. Language Experience Approach:
    a strategy whereby the teacher writes the story as achild tells it. The story is then read by the teacher and child
  105. Prescriptive approach:
    an approach to literacy instruction that teaches code breakingand other skills through an explicit and systematic manner with controlledtexts
  106. Reader Response Model:
    Readers transact with the text, creating new understandingsbased on prior experiences
  107. Reader/Writer
    workshop approach:
    structure for teaching reading and writing thatindividualizes instruction
  108. Reading readiness:
    a perspective that believes that children need to betaught a series of prerequisite skills prior to reading and writing
  109. Repeated readings
    : an instructional approach whereby a student reads aloud a passagea number of times with guidance and feedback on pausing, intonation, andphrasing
  110. Shared reading:
    an interactive reading experience where teachers read aloud andfocus students’ attention on how print works, story structures, and wordrecognition
  111. Whole language model: .
    Reading is seen as an all-encompassing act involving the 4cueing systems graphophonemic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic.
Card Set
GACE terms
Terms need for GACE teaching test