1. Sulfonylureas
    • Trigger insulin release via Ca+ influx by closing K+ channels
    • DM II
    • Release of endogenous insulin
  2. Metaformin (biguanides)
    • Decrease gluconeogensis
    • Increase glycolysis
    • Insulin Sensitizer

    • Lactic Acidosis
    • Contraindicated in Renal Failure
  3. Glitazones / Thiazolidinediones
    • Proglitazone , Rosiglitazone
    • Increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue
    • DM II

    • Cardiovascular Toxicity
    • Hepatotoxity
    • Edema
    • Weight Gain
  4. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    • Acarbose, Miglitol
    • Delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption leads to decreases post-prandial hyperglycemia
    • DM II
  5. Pramlintide
    • Decrease Glucagon
    • DM 2
  6. Exenatide (GLP-1 minimetic)
    • Increase insulin
    • Decrease Glucagon

  7. Orlistat
    • Inhibit pancreatic lipase
    • Obsesity managment

    Decrease fat-vitamin absorption
  8. Sibutramine
    • Serotonin and NE reuptake inhibitor-sympathomimetic
    • Obesity management

  9. Propylthiouracil
    • Inhibit Iodide organification and coupling of thyroid synthesis
    • Decrease T4 to T3 peripheral conversion

    Hyperthyroid Rx

    • Aplastic anemia
    • Agranulocytosis
    • Rash
  10. Methimazole
    Inhibit Iodide organification and coupling of thyroid synthesis

    • Hyperthyroid Rx
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Agranulocytosis
    • Rash
  11. Levothyroxine, Trio-thyronine
    Thyroxine replacement
  12. Desmopression
    Artificial ADH

    Central DI
  13. Demeclocycline
    ADH Antagonist

    SIADH rx

    • Nephrogenic DI
    • Photosensitivity
    • Bone/teeth abnormality
  14. Prednisone
    Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone, beclomethasone

    Inhibits phospholipase A2 and COX-2 -> Decreases production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins

    RX: addison's, asthma, etc..

    • Cushing's Syndrome
    • Increases neutrophil-due to less adhension to vessel call
    • Decrease lymphocytes, monocytes, basophil, eosinophil
  15. Anastrazole
    Aromastase inhibitor-stops conversion of estrogen

    RX: breast cancer
  16. Ketoconazole
    • Antifungal but.
    • Decrease androgen synthesis
  17. Trastuzumab
    EGF-HER/her2 second messenger inhibitor
  18. Finasteride
    5-alpha reductase inhibitor to stop conversion of DHT

    RX: Benign prostate hyperplasia and Baldness

    Hair growth
  19. B-blockers
    Also blocks T4 to T3 conversion in the peripheral tissue

    Does not decrease oxygen consumption of tissue
  20. Leuprolide
    GnRH analog

    Infertility, prostate cancer

    Nausea, vomitting
  21. Testosterone
    • Hypogonadism
    • Recovery after burns
    • ER positive breast cancer

    • Masculinization in females
    • Gonadal Atrophy
    • Increased LDL
    • Decreased HDL
  22. Finasteride
    5-alpha-reductase inhibitor

    BPH, male pattern baldness
  23. Flutamide
    Competitive inhibitor of androgens at testosterone receptor

    Prostate cancer
  24. Ketoconazole
    Inhibit steroid synthesis by stopping demolase

    Polcystic ovarian syndrome to prevent hirsutism

    Gynecomastia and amenorrhea
  25. Spironolactone
    Inhibit steroid binding

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome to prevent hirsutism

    Gynecomastia and amenorrhea
  26. Ethinyl Estradiol

    • Hypogonadism
    • Mentral abonormalities
    • Androgen dependent prostate cancer

    • Do not give in DVT
    • Do not give in ER-positive breast cancer

    • Endometrial cancer
    • Bleeding in post-menopause
    • DES causes adenocarcinoma
    • Increased thrombi
  27. Clomiphene
    Partial Estrogen receptor agonist that prevents normal feedback and stimulate LH and FSH

    Intertility and PCOS

    • Hot flash
    • Ovarian enlargement
    • Visual disturbances
  28. Tamoxifen
    Estrogen antagonist on breast tissue

    ER positive breast cancer
  29. Raloxifen
    Estrogen agonist on bone

    Osteoporisis to reduce bone resorption
  30. Anastrozole
    Aromatase inhibitor

    Postmenopasual women with breast cancer
  31. Exemestane
    Aromatase inhibitor

    Postmenopasual women with breast cancer
  32. Progestin

    • Oral contraceptive
    • Endometrial cancer
    • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  33. Mifepreostpme
    Competitive inhibitor of progestins at progesterone receptor

    Terminate pregnancy. Administer with misoprostol (PGE)

    Heavy bleeding, Gi effects, abdominal pain
  34. Oral contraceptives
    • Increases TG
    • Hypercoagulable state
  35. Dinoprostone
    PGE2 analog

    Induce labor by causing cervical dilation and uterine contraction
  36. Ritodrine

    Prevent premature uterine contraction by relaxing uterus
  37. Tamsulosin
    Selective Alpha-1-AD-antagonist on prostate

    Treat BPH by inhibiting smooth muscle contraction
  38. Sildenafil
    Inhibit cGMP phosphodiesterase therefore increasing cGMP causing smooth muscle relaxation in corpus cavernosum with increased blood flow

    Erectile dysfunction

    Contraindicated in people taking Nitrates due to life threatening hypotension.

    • Flushing
    • Dyspepsia
    • Impaired blue-green color vision
  39. Hydralazine
    • Increase cGMP
    • Aterioles>veins
    • Afterload reduction

    • Hypertension of pregnancy
    • Give along with B-blocker to prevent reflex tachycardia

    Lupus like syndrome
  40. Minoxidil
    • K+ channel opener
    • Hyper-polarizes and relaxes vascular smooth muscle

    Severe Hypertension

    • Hypertrichosis
    • Pericardial Effusion
    • Reflex Tachy
  41. Nifedipine
    Block calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscles

    • Vascular smooth muscle-Nifedipine
    • Heart-verapamil ("verrapamil=ventricle")

    Raynauds, Arrhythmia (not nifedipine)

    Cardiac Depression, AV block, Constipation
  42. Nitroglucerin
    Isosorbide Dinitrate
    • Increase cGMP
    • Dilate veins>arteries
    • Decrease Preload

    Pulomary edema, Angina, Erection enhancer

    • Reflex tachycardia, flushing, Hypotension
    • Monday's Disease
  43. Nitroprusside
    increase cGMP via direct release of NO

    Malignant hypertension

    Cyanide Toxicity
  44. Fenoldopam
    • Dopamine D1 agonist
    • Relaxes Renal smooth muscle

    Malignant hypertension
  45. Diazoxide
    K channel opner

    Malignant Hypertension

    Hyperglycemia-decreases insulin release
  46. Statins
    HMG-coa reductase inhibitor-inhibit mevalonate

    Decrease LDL

    • Rhabdomyolysis
    • Hepatotoxicity
  47. Niacin
    Reduces VLDL secretion

    Increases HDL

    • Vasodilation
    • Hyperglycemia-acanthosis nigricans
    • Hyperuricemia-gout
  48. Cholestryamine
    Decreases intestinal absorption of bile acid

    Decreases LDL

    • GI discomfort
    • Decreases fat soluble vitamins
  49. Ezetimibe
    Prevent cholesterol absorption

    Decreased LDL

    Increases LFTs
  50. Gemfibrozil
    Upregulate LDL to increases TF clearance

    Decreases TG

    • Myositis
    • Hepatotoxicity
    • Cholesterol Gallstones
  51. Digoxin
    Inhibits Na/K ATPase which indirectly inhibits Na/CA exchanger which increases Ca+

    Positive inotropy

    CHF and atrial fibrillation

    • Blurry yellow vision
    • Increased PR
    • Decreased QT
    • T wave inversion
    • Hyperkalemia

    Don't give in hypokalemia, Renal failure, or with quinidine

    Mg+ for antidote
  52. Quinidine
    Class IA Na+ channel blockers

    • Increase AP duration
    • Increase QT interval

    • Both atrial and ventricular arrhymias
    • Reentrant and ectopi supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia

    • Quinidine= Thrombocytopenia, Torsades, Tinnitus
    • Procainamide=SLE like syndrome

    "the Queen proclaims Diso's Pyramide"
  53. Lidocaine
    Class IB Na blocker

    • Decrease AP duration
    • Affects ischemic or depolarized Purkinje and ventricular tissue

    Post-MI arrythmias and digitalis induced arrhythmias

    • Local anesthetic
    • Cadiovascular depression

    "I'd Buy Lidy's Mexican Tacos"
  54. Flecainide
    Class IC Na blocker

    No effect on AP duration

    • Vtachs that progress to VF
    • Intractable SVT

    • Proarrhythmic in post MI patients
    • Contraindicated in Post-MI

    "Chipotle's Food has Excellent Produce"
  55. B-blockers
    • Decrease cAMP and Ca+ current
    • Decrease slope of phase 4
    • Increases PR interval

    Afib and Aflutter

    • Impotence, asthma, Masks hypoglycemia,
    • Metoprolol can cause dyslipidemia

    Treat overdose with Glucagon
  56. Sotalol
    K+ channel blockers

    • Increase AP duration
    • Increase QT interval

    • Amiodarone: pulmonary fibrosis, Hepatotox, Hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism (Check PFT, LFT, TFT)
    • Coreal deposits
    • Skin deposits (blue/gray) resulting in photodermatitis
  57. Verapmil
    Ca+ channel blockers

    • Increase PR interval
    • Decrease conduction velocity in primarily AV node

    Prevention of Nodal Arrhymias

    Constipation, Flushing, Edema
  58. Adenosine
    • Increase K+ out of cells and decrease Ca+ into cells
    • Hyperpolarizes cells

    Diagnose/abolish supraventricular tachycardia

    Chest pain, flushing, hypotension

    effect blocked by theophylline
  59. Mg+
    • Stops Torsades de pointes
    • Stops Digoxin toxicity
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