1. I.                   Jews in the European Nation-State
    • a.      Revival of racism + extreme nationalism à vs. Jews (always hated)
    • b.      19th century: due to ideas of Enlightenemnt and Frenhch Revolution, they were granted legal equality
    •                                                               i.      French revolutionary decrees of 1790  and 1791 emancipated the Jews and gave full citizenship
    • 1.      Enabled them to leave ghetto and assimilate in parliaments and schools
    • a.      Austria: 10% of population/ 30% of med students/ 23% law
  2. Others and anti-seminism
    • a.      Others were bankers, lawyers, etc.
    • b.      Anti-semitism in Austrian Empire and Germany
    •                                                               i.      Austrian politics: Christian Socialists combined agitation for workers with virulent anti-Semitism
  3. Karl Lueger
    • 1.      Most powerful in Vienna: Karl Lueger, mayor of Vienna
    • a.      Blamed Jews for corruption of German culture
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Vienna: Adolf Hitler found his belief in Jews
  4. Germany
    •                                                               i.      Germany: Adolf Stocker’s Christian Social Workers
    • 1.      Used anti-Semitism to win votes of traditional lower-middle-class groups who were threatened by new economic forces of the times
    • a.      Based on race
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In the past, conversion saved Jews; now, they were racially stained and couldn’t be changed 
  5. Persecution
    •                                                               i.      Worst treatment in last 2 decades of 20th in eastern Europe (72% of Jews)
    • 1.      Russian Jews admitted to secondary schools and universities only under quota system and were forced to live in certain regions of the country
  6. Persecutions and pogroms widespread
    • 1.      Persecutions and pogroms widespread
    • Took place in 700 Russian towns and villages (Ukraine)à emigration to US and Canada, Palestine, which became focus for Jewish nationalist movement called Zionism
  7. The Zionist Movement
    •                                                               i.      Emancipation good and bad
    • 1.      Many Jews willingly paid price, but others wanted return to Palestine: land of their dreams
    •                                                             ii.      During the 19th century, as nationalist ideas spread and Italians, Poles, Irish, Greeks, and others sought national emancipation, so did the idea of national independence capture the imagination of some Jews
  8. Theodor Herzl
    • a.      In 1896, he published The Jewish State: “the Jews who wish it will have their state”
    • 2.      Financial support for the development of settlements in Palestine came from wealthy Jewish banking families who wanted a refuge in Palestine for persecuted Jews
    • a.      Establishing settlements was difficult, because Palestine was then part of the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman authorities were opposed to Jewish immigration
  9. Despite warnings
    •                                                               i.      Despite warnings, the First Zionist Congress, which met in Switzerland in 1897, proclaimed as its aim the creation of a “home in Palenstine secured by public law” for the Jewish people
    • 1.      One thousand Jews migrated to Palestine in 1901, and the number rose to 3000 annually between 1904 and 1914; but on the eve of World War I, the Zionist dream remained just that
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