1. Politics: New Directions and New Uncertainties: The uncertainties in Euroepan intellectual and cultural life were paralleld by growing anxieties in European __life. Growth of __ and __ waned. New __ opened the door to changes that were unacceptable and liberals had to adapt. 
    • political
    • liberalism and political democracy
    • mass politics
  2. New politics based on __were bad. With new voting rights, workers elected __who demanded new reforms when they took places in __. Women made new demands, wanting to __ and fighting for it. Tensions grew in c. and e. Europe as governments refused to meet demands of reformers. In US, a new giant appeared
    • racism
    • socialists
    • legislative bodies
    • voite
  3. I.                   The Movement of Women’s Rights
    • a.      Women upset of prejudice and wanted improvement
    •                                                               i.      Family and marriage laws made difficult for women to divorce and property laws gave husbands control over their things
    • b.      Early efforts unsuccessful: didn’t gain property rights until 1870-1907
    •                                                               i.      Britain legalized divorce in 1857, but French: 1884 (limited degree)
    •                                                             ii.      No success in Spain 
  4. New Professions
    •                                                               i.      Middle and upper middle class women had education and some wanted male occupations
    • 1.      First to fall was teaching
    • 2.      Mecause medical traaingi was closed to them, they wanted nursing
  5. Nursing
    • a.      Nursing pioneer was Amalie Sieveking
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Founded Female Association for the Care fo the Poor and Sick in Germany
    • Florence Nightinglae and Clara Barton transformed nursing 
  6. Right to Vote
    •                                                               i.      Call for equal political rights, especially vote, which was key to all other reforms to improve their position
    •                                                             ii.      British Women’s movement
    • 1.      Most vocal and active in Europe, but divided over tactics
  7. Liberal Millicent Fawcett vs. Radical Emmeline Pankhurst
    • a.      Liberal Millicent Fawcett organized a moderate group who believed women must demonstrate that they would use political power responsibly if they wanted Parliament to grant them the right to vote
    • b.      Radical people, like Emmeline Pankhurst and draughts, Christabel and Sylvia, founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903, which enrolled mostly middle- and upper class women
  8. Members of Pankhursts' organization....
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Members of Pankhurst’s organization realized the  value of the media and used unusual publicity stunts to call attention to their demands
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Called “Suffragettes” by male politicians, they pelted gov. officials with eggs, chained selves to lamps, smashed windows,e etc.
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      1913: Emily Davison accepted martyrdom for cause by throwing self in front of king’s horse
  9. Suffragist Aim
    • a.      Suffragist aim: right of women to full citizenship
    •                                                             ii.      Only Finland, Norway, and some American states gave right to vote before 1914
  10. Efforts for Peace
    •                                                               i.      Besides suffrage, women supported peace movements
    • 1.      Bertha von Suttner became head of Austrian Peace society and protested against growing arms race in 1890s
    • a.      Lay Down Your Arms
    • 2.      Lower class women joined too
    • a.      Group of female workers marchied in Vienna (1911)
  11. The New Woman
    •                                                               i.      Women who renounced traditional feminine roles
    • 1.      Some supported political ideas like socialism, others wanted out of house
  12. Maria Montessori
    • 1.      Attended medical school at URomeà first Italian women to get medical degree
    • 2.      Undertook lecture tour on subject of new woman, whom she said were women who followed rational, scientific perspective
    • 3.      Worked for mentally handicapped children, helping htem read and write
    • a.      Education system based on students learning at own pace
Card Set