Emotion and Cognition

  1. What are the five research traditions in emotions?
    • Darwinian
    • Jamesian
    • Neuroscientific
    • Cognitive
    • Social
    • constructivist
  2. What were Darwin's five methods of studying emotions?
    • Observing infants
    • Studying the insane
    • Studying and recording expressions from photos
    • Study of painting and sculpture
    • Comparing cultures
  3. What were Darwin's principles of emotion?
    • Serviceable associated habits: expressions are stimulus-related responses
    • Principle of antithesis: some emotions lead to their opposite
    • Principle of actions is due to nervous system, independent of will and habit: overflow category
  4. Susskind et. al.
    • Disgust expression (narrow eyes, closed mouth, narrowed nostrils) reduces sensory input
    • Fear expression (wide eyes, open mouth, wide nostrils) increases sensory input
    • Disgust and fear are mirror image
  5. Ekman & Friesan (1971): cross-cultural studies
    • Analyzed New Guinea people with no Western contact
    • Asked to match facial expressions to emotion-specific stories
    • High accuracy in matching faces
    • Fear was difficult to distinguish
  6. Elfenbein & Ambady (2002)
    • Analyzed 97 studies
    • Strong universal contribution (about 60%)
    • Sharing cultures gives extra information for interpretation
  7. Display rules
    • Culture and situation affect emotional display
    • When watching movies alone, Americans and Japanese had no difference in expression
    • When observed, Japanese changed expression but Americans did not
  8. Arguments against universality of emotions
    • No proof that expression=emotion
    • Accuracy differs according to literacy and Western versus non-Western
  9. Jame's Approach
    • Perception-->expression/autonomic/action-->emotion
    • Self perceiving and interpreting action is emotion
  10. Evidence for Jame's theory
    • Holding pen with lips or teeth-- higher funniness rating of jokes when holding pen with teeth
    • 7/14 measures differ between fear and anger-- body is differentiated enough for different emotions
    • Spinal cord lesions lead to change in emotions, the higher the lesion, the more the effect
  11. Schachter's two-factor approach
    • Emotion=arousal+cognition
    • Arousal is the motor, cognition is the steering wheel
  12. Evidence for Schachter's theory
    • Injected participants with epinephrine
    • One group was correctly informed about symptoms, one misinformed, one uninformed
    • Mixed results
    • Heartbeat perception--greater ability, more differentiated emotions
  13. LeDoux's two pathway approach
    • Emotions developed for different purposes
    • Amygdala and fear shortcuts the brain and speeds up reaction to stimuli
  14. Orbitofrontal cortex role in emotion
    • Orbitofrontal syndrome: impulsive behavior, poor judgement and insight
    • When damaged, cannot learn socially or transfer social cues to emotions
  15. Control of facial expression
    • Voluntary facial expressions are controlled unilaterally-- lesion on right side freezes left half of face
    • Involuntary expressions are controlled bilaterally-- lesion on one side does not affect expression
  16. Appraisal
    • A rough evaluation of whether something is good or bad for you, intuition
    • Not conscious or intellectual
  17. Role of appraisal in emotion
    • Participants watched gruesome Rite of Passage movie
    • 4 groups: no soundtrack, scientific view, positive interpretation, negative interpretation
    • Denial group had lowest arousal
  18. Lazarus/Zajonc debate
    • Lazarus: situation, knowledge and goals contribute to appraisal, which leads to emotion
    • Zajonc: feelings come first and cognition follows, preferences need no inferences
  19. Mandler's approach
    • Arousal serves to interrupt higher processing and direct attention
    • Emotion highlights important events, whether positive or negative
  20. Oatley's approach
    • Emotions result evaluation of goal-related events
    • Constantly perceiving stimuli and monitoring, when stimuli affect goals, emotion interrupts planning
  21. Social constructivist approach
    • Universality is overestimated and cultural differences are ignored
    • Averill: culture contributes to appraisal of perceived events
    • Emotions are temporary enactments of social roles
  22. Do negative emotions cause coronary heart disease?
    • Anger: limited but suggestive evidence, hostility
    • Anxiety/fear: strongest
    • Depression: not clear, hopelessness
    • Only if prolonged
  23. What are the action tendencies associated with negative emotions?
    • Anger: fight
    • Anxiety/fear: flight
    • Depression: giving up/withdrawal
  24. What are the direct effects of emotion?
    Biological pathways: SAM and HPAC axes
  25. What are the indirect effects of emotion?
    Social and behavioral pathways: health behavior, coping resources, social support
Card Set
Emotion and Cognition
Review for final exam