1. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) did what?
    Copernicus devel-oped a heliocentric theory of the known universe
  2. Nicolaus Copernicus was flawed why
    His revolu-tionary theory was flawed in that he assumed that the planets had circular orbits around the Sun.
  3. who corrected Nicolaus Copernicus flawed theory
    Johannes Kepler
  4. Tycho Brahe created what theory
    He de-vised a halfway theory called the Tychonic system.
  5. Accord-ing to Tycho’s theory
    Earth is stationary, with the Sun and the Moon revolving around it, while all the other planets re-volve around the Sun.
  6. Galileo Galilei created what formula
    formulated his famous law of falling bodies: All objects fall with the same acceleration regardless of their weight.
  7. Isaac Newton (1642–1727) developed what type of math
    began developing the math-ematics that later became calcu-lus
  8. Isaac Newton discovered what in light?
    white light is actually a mixture of all colors.
  9. when is the least extreme tides during what moon phase
    1st , 3rd quarter
  10. sun tides are how strong
    not that strong compared to moon tides
  11. when man landed on the moon on july 20, 1969. where did he land?
    mara tranquility
  12. synchronous rotation is what
    moon rotates at the same rate as it revolves.
  13. from earth we can only see 60% of the moon because of
    synchronous rotation
  14. when does the far side of the moon get sunlight
    new moon phase
  15. does earth go through phases if you were looking at the earth from the moon.
  16. how many low and high tides happen each day
    2 each day
  17. how long do high tides last
    about 50 minutes
  18. when do the most extreme tides happen
    during the full moon and new moon phase
  19. if the tides last 50 mins twice a day. does that mean they happen at the same time everyday
    no, the 50 minutes continues
  20. full moon and new moon tides are called what
    spring tides
  21. what is rock density?
  22. what is water density?
  23. what is irons density
    8000 kg
  24. what is density calculated by?
  25. Earths density is
    5500 kg.
  26. earths density is made up of what?
    Half rock and half iron
  27. how far is the moon?
    240,000 miles away form earth
  28. what is moon surface gravity?
    1/16 of earths
  29. moons mass is
    1/80 of the earth
  30. does the moon have a atmosphere?
  31. what hold in gases to create an atmosphere?
  32. what are the effects of not having gravity?
    no rain, snow, sound, wind, weather.
  33. when is it day time on the moon
    the black sky
  34. why is the sky blue?
    sun light hits the atmosphere and the blue wave length which is longer gets spread out when hitting the air molecules.
  35. what happens when the sun hit the thicker part of the atmosphere?
    the shorter wave length shines through the atmosphere causing a red sunset.
  36. why do people think the earths core is iron?
    because of the magnetic field.
  37. O3 does what?
    absorbs U.V. radiation
  38. chlorofluorocarbons is short for
  39. CFC cause what?
    depletion of our ozone layer.
  40. sign for carbon monoxide
    CO1, dangerous
  41. sign for carbon dioxide
    CO2 , what in soda
  42. what do we exhale?
    78% nitrogen
  43. how far have we reached the earths core and how far has man been.
    we have drilled 8miles through earth core and man has been 3 miles.
  44. what is earths first layer?
    earths crust is 3 to 20miles thick
  45. what is the 2nd layer of earth core?
    Mantle, is 2000 miles thick.
  46. what is the third layer of earths core?
    liquid iron state
  47. what is the final layer of earth core
    solid iron
  48. techno tics is what?
    the small amount of movement from the plates moving.
  49. 200 million years ago how many continents were there?
    believed to be 1 huge Continent
  50. when the 1 continent broke apart what direction did they travel?
    earth broken up continent are traveling NE.
  51. earths core is believed to how hot?
    10k degrees.
  52. timing the waves as they travel from one point and back to the original spot is called what?
    seismic waves
  53. what is earth diameter?
    7926 miles
  54. Earths circumference?
    24,901 miles
  55. How much water is on the earth?
  56. whats the highest temperature on the earth?
    136 degree F
  57. what is the lowest temperature on earth?
    -129 degrees
  58. highest point of earth is what and where?
    MT. Everest 29,035 or 5.5 miles high.
  59. where does it rain the most?
    MT. Walialeale, Hawaii at 460 inches per year
  60. deepest ocean?
    pacific ocean, 31,198 deep or 7 miles deep.
  61. what is the first layer of earth atmosphere?
    troposphere, 7 miles above sea level
  62. what is the second layer of earth atmosphere?
    stratosphere, 30 miles and up
  63. what is the 3rd layer of earth atmosphere?
    mesosphere, 50 and above
  64. what is the 4th layer of earth atmosphere?
    thermosphere or ionosphere 90 and above
  65. what are the inferior planets?
    mercury and Venus
  66. what are the superior planets?
    mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
  67. what does inferior planets mean?
    planets that lie on inside of earths orbit.
  68. what does superior planets mean?
    planets that lie on the outside of earths orbit.
  69. Is it hot or cold on the Moon?
    Day: 130°C 5 266°F 5 403 K

      Night: 2180°C 5 2292°F 5 93K

    It has no atmosphere.
  70. when is the best time to see a superior planet?
    in its opposition phase.
  71. sidereal period is
    time it takes to orbit around
  72. synodic period is
    how long it takes to return to its original position.
  73. The angle between the Sun and a planet as viewed from Earth is called the  planet’s
  74. The geometric arrangements among Earth, another planet, and the Sun are called
  75. a planet in opposition is
    farthest from the sun next to the earth
  76. a planet that is in conjunction is
    closet to the sun on the opposite side of the earth.
  77. does the moon rotate?
  78. when are morning stars visible?
    right before the sun does in the western sky.
  79. when is the best time to see a planet which lies inside the earths orbit.
    when the planet is on the greatest eastern elongation its visible at sunset.
  80. when is the best time to see a planet which lies outside the earths orbit?
    midnight is best to see the planets or after the sun is below the horizon.
  81. what did Tycho Brahe accurately measure with an accuracy of 1 arcmin?
    measuring planets position with an accuracy of 1 arcim possible with non telescopic instruments.
  82. kelpers first law?
    the orbit of a planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.
  83. kelpers 2nd law
    a line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.
  84. Keplers 3rd law
    the square of a planet sidereal period around the sun is directly proportional to the cube of the length of its orbits semi major axis.
  85. what Greek astronomer proposed a sun centered universe?
  86. what is retrograde?
    its when planets move backwards.
  87. what direction are the planets moving when they retrograde?
    East to west or left to right.
  88. Greek astronomers believe was the earths shape was?
    A epicycles
  89. who created the measurement of earth circumference?
  90. how did Eratosthenes measure the earth circumference?
    he found noon time  that pointed at Alexandria. using a vertical straight stick for the shadow.
  91. who tried to measure the parallax?
    Tycho Brahe
  92. how much is 1 arch minute?
    1/60th of a minute
  93. what astronomer had the first telescope to study the stars?
  94. how many moons does Jupiter have?
  95. kelpers 2nd law explains what?
    that planets move faster when there closer to the sun and slower when further away.
  96. how long does it take for mars to make 1 sidereal evolution?
    24 months around the sun.
  97. The sun,moon,stars,planets do what every day?
    rise in the east and set in the west.
  98. When does mars retrograde?
    OCT 1st to DEC 1st
  99. Ptolemy did what?
    assigned each planet its own epicycles to explain retrograde motion.
  100. Copernicus thought that the universe was a heliocentric universe which means?
    the sun was at the center.
  101. Aristotle thought earth was were in the universe?
    at the center.
  102. ancient Greeks thought the earth was
    stationary and didn't rotate or revolve.
  103. Statia is what?
    it is a Olympic size stadium which measures 1/10 of a mile.
  104. why do eclipses occur every 6 months?
    the moons orbital plane is tipped by 5 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane.
  105. lunar eclipse is when?
    is in a full moon
  106. solar eclipse is when?
    a new moon.
  107. When the moon and sun inline perfectly with each other is called
  108. what phase does the moon need to be in for  total solar eclipse?
    new moon.
  109. lunar eclipse is the shadow of?
    shadow is the umbra which is about 170 mile shadow cast.
  110. how long does a total eclipse last
    about 7 1/2 minutes.
  111. on the outside of the umbra shadow is called?
    the penumbra.
  112. how many solar eclipses happen each year?
    between 2 and 5.
  113. three types of lunar eclipses?
    umbra, penumbra, penumbral eclipse.
  114. three types of solar eclipses?
    Corona, annular and total eclipse.
  115. what is the "line of nodes"?
    its when the moon crosses ecliptic plane during a new of full moon and causes a eclipse.
  116. when a potion of the moon passes through the umbra what type of eclipse do you get?
    partial eclipse
  117. when the moon passes through the umbra completely you get what?
    total eclipse
  118. how long does a lunar eclipse last?
    1hr 47minutes.
  119. when is the eclipse season?
    During the equinox season
  120. how long does the eclipse season last
    between 31 to 37 days.
  121. how long does a solar eclipse last?
    anywhere from 3 to 5 hours.
  122. how old is the earth?
    4.6 billion years old
  123. pressure is measured how?
  124. what is earth pressure?
    The weight of the air pushing down creates a pressure at sea level of 14.7 pounds per square inch, which is commonly denoted as 1 atmosphere.
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