new classical; newly classical; want to emulate old classical ideas. Rebirth of interest in classical. Louis XIV championed the neoclassical idea because he wanted to rule the world in terms of culture and mandated them strictly.
Means the appearance of the truth. Purity within the notion of truth---> complicates reality because forced to create a mirror of ideal. Three primary "ingredients" needed to achieve verisimilitude is reality, morality, and universality.
The playwrights achieve reality in their plays by the three unities: time, place, and action. Action: telling one story-->not big in subplots. Time: the play as a whole has to be within 24 hours. Place: Has to be in a single location. The inspiration for the unities came from Greece and the poetics --> Aristotle, scientific examination of drama and got from best plays.
Play writers achieved reality by decorum: meaning appropriate behavior through the characters in the play must behave in their social class. (Maid has to act like a maid when speaking, evil must be punished and good must be rewarded.) Plays must teach and please. The audience must be entertained and taught or reinforce a lesson.
The stories had to speak to every audience of a time period. The playwrights achieved universality in their plays by focus on a common characteristics and no intermingling of comedy and tragedy.
The French Academy
Known as the "play police", it was formed in 1636 to help create goal of France as cultural center of Europe. The academy regulated language and enforced rules.
Written by Diderot. Published 1751-1752. "To gather knowledge scattered over the surface of the earth." It was text based. ALl the valid knowledge that resulted in good reasonings. It was the product of the new central sphere. Paid for by private subscribers therefore it criticized the government. THe book then got banned because of the mocking of the church and it spoke the truth about the society. EVeryone who had a copy of it had to go to jail.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778, wife-beater, had 6 kids but everytime the wife gave birth he took the child to the orphanage. He thought that the state corrupted men and women into being cheaters and living for others than their significant others.
Social Contract of Rousseau
"Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains." Says that general will is more important than the rights of the individual.
For women virtue begins with educating their children to be good citizens in the Republic. This is according to Rousseau, if the child grows up to be problematic, the mother is at blame because she raised them.
- women stay at home and raise kids
- women loved it because they had a political role to play-raising citizens from babies.
A statement is true simply by definition
You actually learn something new that is not part of the definition of the object.
prior to new experience
after having experience
(1724 - 1804), has a lack of reason, motivation, and courage. Writings were hard to read because he tried to say things no one has ever said. He was respected among his peers, unwilling to indulge in self-analysis. Did not fall in easy, reliance. Felt like his teachers were nit-picky. Has mind/world relations as he argues that the mind is not only experiencing, and isn't a blank slate, it is a participant in the knowledge. Judgements of experience are all synthetic. Mind doesn't reflect experience. Innate ideas in our mind are shaped into experiences. Says its innate to know the cause and effect. All mathematical statements are analytic a priori.
Marquis de Sade
(1740-1814), Disproved of eternal life, and takes destruction as a law needed in the government. Says cruelty is in our 1st instinct. " Murder is natural and a necessity." pg 137-150 in HR
The Baal Shem Tov (1700- 1760) This is a type of Jewish life. People who believed in this were misfits influenced by Palestine thinking, healing the world by bringing divine parts together. Zaddik: the holy man, someone who has reincarnated divine right and life. They had a constant attachment to God as these Jews thought of God daily. If you stopped thinking of Him, you have sinned. Though they did not want to make it an effort to think of the Creator, they though of him intellectually as the Place of the World and always set Him before themselves. They were seen as true believers of this and always set forward to learn more.
Immanence of God
The whole earth is full of His glory and there is no place that is empty of Him, and that He is in all the worlds. THis idea can be sensed in everything for the life force of the creator is everywhere. Everything possesses taste odor, appearance, or love; it is beloved or feared or considered beautiful, and so on for all other attributes. This is important for the Jews who believed in Hasidism as they then believed in this because He was everywhere.
Led by Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) and the Jewish Enlightenment. This is the second type of Jewish religion mostly followed by people who were involved in the Enlightenment like Immanuel Kant. Mendelssohn did bible translations and went by a German name which mainstreamed himself. Said being a Jew means living the Jewish life.
The French Revolution
The Revolution had two phases: moderate and radical. France went though an economic crisis because France supported expensive wars, and the aristocrats were living the good life. The wealthy aristocrats didn't pay taxes only the lower class did. They had to get out of bankruptcy by taxing the nobles and aristocrats but the nobles held to their privileges of not being taxed and fought against this. There were political problems that separated the classes. Kings vs. Nobles, Nobles vs. Middle Class. Kings called the meeting of the Estates General (legislative body). Aristocrats have privileges that separate them form the middle class. The decision to invoke state general was important to show that the king/monarch was sharing decision making powers to the state general. Louis XIV ordered the people to write down their grievances. Cahiers de doleances (Book of Grievances), about their government, society, culture, and government. Calling of the estates general and publications of grievances helped the people understand politics and people were included in the government.
The National Assembly
1789, Consisted of the Third Estate which is everyone else who isn't nobility or clergy, the middle class, and the working class. The National Assembly proclaimed themselves as the speakers of France. Three days later, they got locked out of the meeting place. So they moved to a tennis court and made the Tennis Court Oath - 1789 - the oath to not leave until they wrote the constitution for France. Louis XIV didn't know how to handle the National Assembly so he agreed to a new tax, free press, regular meetings, but still left the assembly with no power.
Storming of the Bastille
1789. The Bastille prison was stormed/attacked by the working class. There were rumors about weapons being stored inside the prison. Cannons on the prison grounds were facing the working class homes and they were afraid that one day they were going to shoot them. THe working class came to aid the assembly for what they were doing in the legislature. THere was no one group in power after this which meant more radical events could happen. The prison was a symbol for absolutism as Louis XIV was an absolutist and was leading France in a way the working class didn't like too much. The storming of the Bastille was a radial movement for the working class and shows how they want control and assurement of jobs.
Romanticism in Poetry
The style of romanticism poetry is one long thought, connection with imagery, blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter). Poet speaks for himself and gives "universal" truths and expresses individual feelings. Values revolution, freedom, and movement. Supports extreme states. Romantics believe our mind can transcend anything that can wight us down. Someone who finds it unacceptable when reality fails to live up to their dreams/expectations. Pattern of the poetry: unity (hope/joy), falling away from unity (despair), struggle to recapture unity of nature. Romanticism arises in the wake of Enlightenment with an attempt to replace God w/ nature. Romanticism is the worship of nature, but nature means a reflection of the human soul and mind.
The Industrial Revolution
18th century. Revolution changed all the societies down to its roots that sustained over time. Industrialization created the British working class and middle class. Men were no longer treated like men but a commodity that could be bought and sold. Machines and products of technology revolutionized the progress. As more complex machines meant more workers to work them. Francis Bacon said "Knowledge is power" and science is the solution to practical problems. Periodization: Industrial Revolution affected from England to Europe to the US and all over. Causes were Britain was a island-nation, and ENgland had an effective bank so they could develop. Britain avoided revolution because people thought that they could move up in society. Products that were being used in daily life came from other places. Triangular Trade Route: African slaves were taken to America and Europe. Manufactured goods were being traded for the Africans. (sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton) Textiles were one of the leading edges of the revolution that produced more cotton and clothes. Social consequences of revolution were new labor arrangements. For example, if the machine was working the worker had to be working. No more drinking on the job or swearing. No more being late or pay was docked. The body had to be disciplined to working in the factories. The revolution overall influenced the growth of technology in the world. Without it, there would not be machines or many of the other things we own today.
(The Wealth of Nations 1776) The division of labor resulted in "the greatest improvement in the productive powers of labor". Says human nature is consistent and non-changing as we instinctively trade with other people and were born to shop. Humans are self-lovers, tending to only look out for ourselves. View of the divine as God has planned out our future very well, so we can flourish. The invisible hand supported laissez-faire economics: keep laws limited as possible otherwise you will squelch the invisible hands profits/exchange. The invisible hand is more about economics. Individuals gain self-interest, then the nation as a whole rises.
(Communist Manifesto 1848) Materialist; when material forces change, spiritual forces change, then it's a radical change. SOcial relationships between people were the center of the material base for Marx. Alienated labor: an object goes through an assembly line with each worker doing a tiny part. The workers are alienated from the object. Bourgeoisie middle class owners of factories: means of production. Proletariat are the urban industrial workers. Not having meaningful work for the workers represented humans with no life.
Manifesto of the Communist Party 1848
Bourgeoisie runs the capitalism. Proletarians are under them and run the machines. Proletarians overthrow the bourgeoisie (communism). Common ownership of the factories as every society has an infrastructure.
The Teleological Argument
Scientists argument for God. You can tell by looking at an object that it has a purpose and was made by someone who designed it with meaning wanting it to have a purpose. Mechanism had diminished the apparent need for a designer. Biology became the new teleological argument. This is the evidence of evolution as it was before Darwin's time.
There are tons of species that we don't know about. Fossil museum distinguishes the dead ones.
1809-1882; med student then changed to Anglican priest. Became fascinated with beetles then this lead him to becoming a naturalist. Voyage of the Beagle: lasted 5 years. Observed earthquakes and saw that lava flowing with shaking ground. Lava flows with seashells. Fossil shelss of marine, fossils of extinct. Darwin came up with a mechanism by which evolution could work. Natural selection (trait variation, environmental variation, organisms that reproduce. Sexual selection (sexual competition: organism is more attracted to another organism for mating & intraspecific competition.
Race means to see someone's physical appearance, body, color, and pigmentation of skin. In European imagination, they divided the world into one black and one white. The problems with race is that every breed has an inter-breed making all races combine.
Confusion of breeding population, human behavior. Prejudice is usually against a group of people who act it a distasteful way.
Assumptions that people make about race that are inaccurate according to scientists. There are different races. People of different races think or behave differently. Some races are inferior to others.
Characteristics of True Womanhood
Piety - Religion was valued because unlike intellectual pursuits it do not take a woman away from her "proper sphere" the home, and because it controlled women's longings.
Purity - Virginity was seen as a woman's greatest treasure which she had to preserve until her marriage night.
Submission - True WOmen were required to be as submissive and obedient "as little children" because men were regarded as women's superiors "by God's appointment".
Domesticity - A woman's proper sphere was the home where a wife created a refuge for her husband and children; Needlework, cooking, making beds, and tending flowers were considered proper feminine activities whereas reading of anything other than religious biographies was discouraged.
Conventions of a Classic Slave Narrative
Literacy as the key to freedom. The journey north. Verifying documents: letters, marriage license, free papers. Preface from a white abolitionist. Accounts of atrocities of slavery - torture, murders, owners/death/wills. Deaths: peaceful for good owners and painful for bad. Distinguishing between true and false Christianity, true and false America. Two voices: economic or spiritual. Evolution of consciousness and the shedding of false consciousness. Construction of self-attaining manhood.