1. I.                   The Culture of Modernity: Literature
    • a.      Revolution in physics and psychology was paralleled by revolution in lit and arts
    • Writers and artists (1914) rejected traditional literary and artistic styles that dominated European cultural life since Renaissance-à Modernism 
  2. Naturalism
    •                                                               i.      Lit was dominated by this, which accepted the material world as real and felt that lit should be real
    •                                                             ii.      By addressing social problems, writers could contribute to an objective understanding of the world
  3. Continuation
    •                                                               i.      Although it was a continuation of realism, it lacked the underlying note of liberal optimism about people and society that was prevalent in the 1850s
    • 1.      Naturalists wre pessimistic about Europe’s future and portrayed characters caught in the grip of forces beyond their control
  4. Novels of French writer
    •                                                               i.      Novels of French writer Emile Zola
    • 1.      Showed how alcoholism and different environments affected people’s lives
    • a.      He read Origin of Species and was impressed by its emphasis on the struggle for survival and the importance of environment and heredity
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Themese were central to his Rougon-Macquart, a 20-volume series of novels on the “natual and social history of a family” 
    • 1.      He maintained that the artist must analyze and dissect life as a biologist would do an organism
  5. Second half of 19th
    •                                                               i.      Second half of 19th: golden age of Russian lit
    • 1.      High point in works of Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky
    • a.      War and Peace (Tolstoy)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Played out against historical background of Napoleon’s invasion o fRussia in 1812
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Realistic in vivid description sof military lfie and character portrayal
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Each person delineated and analyzed psychologically
  6. Dostoevsky
    • a.      Dostoevsky combined narrative skill and acute psychological and moral observation with profound insights into human nature
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Maintained that the major problem of his age was a loss of spiritual belief 
  7. Western people
    • 1.      Western people were attempting to gain salvation through the construction of a materialist paradise built only by human reason and human will
    • 2.      He feared that the failure to incorporate spirit would result in total tyranny
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      his own life experiences led him to believe that only through suffering and faith could he be purified
    • 1.      evident in Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov
  8. Symbolism``
    •                                                               i.      Reacted against Realism
    • 1.      Primarily interested in writing poetry, they beleivd tha tan objective knowledge of the world was not possible
    • a.      External world wasn’t real but only a collection of symbols htat reflected the true reality of the individual human mind
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