1. I.                   The Impact of Darwin
    • a.      Application of Darwin’s principle of organic evolution= social Darwinism
    • b.      Social Darwinism
    •                                                               i.      Herbert Spencer used it to argue that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment
    • 1.      Progress from the struggle for survival: strong advanced; weak didn’t 
  2. Racism
    •                                                               i.      In racists’ and nationalists’ pursuit of national greatness, they argued that nations were engaged in struggle for existence with fittest surviving
    • 1.      Freidrich von Bernhardi: war is needed; without it, an unhealthy development will follow
  3. Nationalist Association
    •                                                               i.      Nationalist Association of Italy declared that “we must teach Italy the value of international struggle. WAR!”
    •                                                             ii.      Strengthened with biological arguments
    • 1.      Nowhere was the combo of extreme nationalism and racism more evident/ dangerous than Germany
  4. Volk
    • a.      Volk (fulk= nation, race, etc) was underlying idea in German history since beginning of 19th
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One of chief propagandists for German volkish thought was Houston Stewart Chamberlain, an Englishman who became a German citizen
  5. The Foundations of the 19th Century
    • 1.      The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century made special impact on Germany
    • a.      Modern-day Germans were the only pure successors of the Aryans, who were portrayed as the true and original creators of Western culture
  6. The Aryan race
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      The Aryan race, under German leadership, must be prepared to fight for Western Civilization and save it from the destructive assaults of lower races like Jews, Negroes, etc.
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Jews were singled out by German volkish nationalists as racial enemies in biological terms
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