B. in the process of sensory transduction, physical information from the environment, in the form of light strikes the specialized receptor cells on the retina. this causes light-sensitive substances to undergo chemical changes. these changes cause an electrical event called a "generator potential" to occur. this "generator potential" then activates nerve cells, which transmit the visual information to the brain.
E. the retina is composed of photoreceptor nerve cells (rods and cones) which form a photosensitive curtain at he back of the eye. Over 120 million photoreceptor cells are found in the retina of each eye.
in a test situation, the examiner wants there to be only one independent variable -- the individual being tested. To ensure this, the examiner administers a (an)
E. standardization of a test implies that there is a uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring the test. If this uniformity (standardization) exists then one can be assured of only measuring the one independent variable of interest--the person being tested. Without standardization, the examiner cannot be certain that the difference in test scores among individuals is attributable to true individual differences rather than chance factors in the testing environment
which of the following is the most widely accepted significance level for demonstrating significance in experimental result?
A. the appropriate significance level is .05. This is the usual cut-off point for determining the significant difference between two means. At the .05 level the difference between the means is considered so great that it is unlikely that it could have occurred by chance. A p value of .05 means that the results obtained could have occurred by chance in only 5 out of 100 replications of the experiment.
in auditory sensation, pitch
C. pitch is closely related to the frequency of the stimulus. Sound is basically vibrations of particles in the air. These vibrations are wavelike and are called sound waves. The frequency of a vibration is a measure of how many times it goes up and down in a single period of time. We generally experience high frequency waves as high pitched tones; therefore, pitch is closely related to the frequency of sound
in the auditory system, the cochlear branch
A. the cochlea is part of the inner ear concerned with hearing. it consists of three canals, the vesribular, the tympanic and the tectorial, that spiral around inside the cochlea. It also contains the organ of corti which has small hair-tipped, receptor cells necessary for hearing. In addition, the cochlea contains the round window, another membrane separating the inner and middle ears.
children learning the alphabet is a common form of
C. whenever items of a list are learned in sequence, serial learning takes place. Associations may be formed between the items, or the proper order of the items may be learned by linking them to a particular position in the list.
the basic types of verbal learning are
E. serial learning occurs when a list of items is memorized and recalled in a particular order. In serial-anticipation learning, a list of items, usually nonsense syllables, are presented one at a time for a standard time interval. The first time the list is presented, the subject will not know which successive syllables are correct. beginning with the second trial, he is asked to anticipate the syllable that follows the one he is looking at. This method provides immediate feedback for the subject about accuracy of response. In paired-associate learning, the subject must learn a list of paired items. The left-hand item of the pair is the stimulus item and the right-hand item is the response item. After learning the pairs, the subject should be able to produce the response item when given the stimulus item. Free recall learning is the learning and recall of a list of items. The retrieved items do not need to be in any specific order.
the law of effect was first formulated by
D. E.L Thorndike first proposed the law of effect, although B.F Skinner and H. Rachlin did contribute to the study of it. The law of effect is concerned with the effects of reward and punishment on behavior. Responses are learned or extinguished as a consequence of their effect on the organism. A response that produces satisfaction becomes associated with the situation in which it occurs, so that whenever this situation occurs, the response is more likely than before to recur. A response that causes discomfort is less likely to recur.
If we determine the heights and weights of a group of college men, the data generated is
C. The kinds of numbers that can take on any fractional or integer value between specified limits are categorized as continuous, whereas values that are usually restricted to whole number values are called discrete. Thus, if we identify the number of people who use toothpaste, the data generated is discrete. Heights and weights are continuous.
Ivan P. Pavlov is famous for his research on
B. Ivan P Pavlov (1849-1936) virtually discovered the phenomenon of classical conditioning and was the first to investigate it systematically. In Pavlov's experiments with the salivating response of his dogs, he establishes the basic methodology and terminology still used today in classical conditioning cause it naturally and consistently elicited salivation, which he called the unconditioned response (UCR). Pavlov later taught dogs to salivate to light. This was accomplished by presenting the light just prior to presenting the food. After a series of such pairings, the dogs would salivate in response to the light. In this case, the light was a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation in response to the light was a conditioned response (CR). Hence Pavlov's research elucidated the process of classical conditioning
a stimulus that elicits a response before the experimental manipulation is a (an)
A. In classical conditioning the stimulus that elicits a response before any conditioning begins is called the unconditioned stimulus. It reliably elicits the unconditioned response (UCR) before the experiment. During the experimental manipulation the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) that originally does not elicit a response. After several such pairings the subject will elicit a conditioned response (CR) to the conditioned stimulus (CS) that is very similar to the unconditioned response (UCR). After this conditioned response (CR) is learned, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) may be removed, but the subject will keep responding to the conditioned stimulus (CS).
the probability that the null hypothesis (H0) will be rejected when it is in fact true is called a (an)
E. A type I error equals the significance level. Alpha is the probability of committing a type one error. The type one error is an error of statistical inference that occurs when the null hypothesis is true, but is rejected. The smaller Alpha is, the more confident we are that the results obtained are significant, that is they did not just happen by chance.
according to association theory, behavior
D. the theory of association states that learning consists of the formulation of associations between responses and the stimuli which are present when those responses are made. The associationists and their descendants, the behaviorists, see learning as automatic, gradual, and as being "favored upon" the organism by the external stimuli