Alcamo's Ch 9

  1. What are the 2 ways genetic info in prokaryotes can be transferred?
    Vertically or horizontally
  2. Vertical gene transfer is transfer of genetic info fr where to where?
    Parent cell to daughter cell
  3. Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of DNA fr where to where?
    Donor cell to recipient cell
  4. Describe transformation.
    Uptake of free DNA fragment fr surrounding environment & the expression of genetic info in the recipient cell
  5. DNA transformation involves the transfer of DNA via

    C) Naked DNA in solution
  6. The transfer of genetic material between bacteria in direct physical contact is called

    A) conjugation
  7. The transfer of a naked fragment of DNA between bacteria is called

    A) transformation
  8. The transport of bacterial DNA to other bacteria via bacteriaphages is called

    A) transduction
  9. Horizontal transfer can best be described as:

    C) the transmission of genetic information fr one independent, mature organism to another
  10. Plasmids can best be described as:

    A) small circular DNA molecules that can exist independently of chromosomes commonly found in bacteria
  11. F factor plasmids play a major role in what bacterial process?

    C) conjugation
  12. This type of plasmid makes the host more pathogenic

    C) virulence plasmid
  13. Mobile genetic elements that carry the genes required for integration into host chromosomes

    B) transporons
  14. Which of the following are true in regards to F+ x F- mating events?

    C) DNA is transferred fr F+ to F- cells
  15. A bacterial cell that is able to take up naked DNA is said to be

    B) competent
  16. The relationship between a virus and host where no new viral particles are produces and the viral genome is replicated along with host chromosome

    C) lysogeny
  17. Which of the following can be used as a tool by microbial genetisists?

    D) all of the above
  18. Recombination of virus genomes occurs

    A) when 2 viruses w/homologous chromosomes infect a host cell simultaneously
  19. These are bacterial proteins that destroy other bacteria

    C) bacteriocins
  20. Transformation was first described by whom, when?
    Frederick Griffith in 1928
  21. ___ is the ability of a recipient cell to take up DNA fr the environment.
  22. What is the term given to cell to cell contact for horizontal gene transfer?
  23. In conjugation, how does the donor cell transfer DNA to the recipient?
    Donor cell forms a conjugation pilus to make contact with the recipient
  24. What process involves viruses as agents for the horizontal transfer of DNA?
  25. How are chromosomal DNA fragments carried in transduction?
    A virus or bacteriophage carries the fragment fr donor to recepient
  26. What 3 things do virulent phages do in the lytic cycle?
    • Destroy the host chromosome
    • Replicate themselves
    • Destroy the cell
  27. In the ___ cycle, temperate phages integrate their DNA into host chromosomes as a ____.
    • Lysogenic
    • Prophage
  28. A recombinant DNA molecule contains DNA fragments....
    Spliced together fr 2 or more organisms
  29. What does genetic engineering involve?
    Changing genetic material in an organism to alter its traits or products
  30. How do genetic engineers obtain specific fragments of DNA?
    • By cutting short stretches of nucleotides w/a restriction endonuclease
    • They are then joined by DNA ligase
  31. What is a DNA probe?
    Single strand of DNA that recognize & bind w/a specific nucleotide sequence of a pathogen
  32. What is microbial genomics?
    The discipline of sequencing, analyzing and comparing microbial genomes
  33. The ability to ID unculturable organisms is opening up the new discipline of ___.
  34. Which of the following involves DNA polymerase activity?

    A) Replication
  35. Which of the following processes requires a DNA ligase to seal Ocazaki fragments?

    C) Replication
  36. Which of the following processes is DNA dependent RNA synthesis process?

    C) Transcription
  37. RNA polymerase starts starts ___ at a ctrl sequence called a promoter found on the template strand?

    A) Transcription
  38. The RNA polymerase transcribes the template, substituting ___ for ___ where adenine appears in the DNA template strand.
    Uracil for thymine
  39. What is DNA recombination?
    A natural mechanism for DNA transfer fr one microorganism to another
  40. Which of the following includes the attachment of viral DNA to the bacterial chromosome?

    B) transduction
  41. Which of the following involves a transfer of genes via direct contact?

    A) Conjugation
  42. Which of the following occurs in generalized and specialized forms?

    C) Transduction
  43. Which of the following requires competent cells be available?

    A) Transformation
  44. Which of the following carries viral genes fr bacterial chromosomes?

    A) Transduction
  45. Which of the following was first observed by Griffith in pneumococci?

    A) Transformation
  46. Which of the following involves F+ cells as donor cells?

    A) Conjugation
  47. Which of the following utilizes a pilus?

    B) conjugation
  48. Which occurs when naked pieces of DNA are taken up fr the environment?

    C) Transformation
  49. Which involves an unencapsulated bacterium becoming encapsulated?

    A) Transformation
  50. Which follows the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage?

    A) transduction
  51. Which involves plasmids moving between live bacteria?

    B) Conjugation
  52. A viral genome integrated into a host genome is known as a ___.
    F⁺ cell
  53. A cell capable of being transformed is considered to be ___.
  54. Which is a cell w/conjugation pilus; plasmid in the cytoplasm?
    F⁺ cell
    F⁺ cell
  55. The ___ ___ are events in a cell as virus particles are replicated and released.
    Lytic Cycle
  56. A hollow structure for DNA transfer is known as a ___.
  57. Which is a cell that conjugates; donates bacterial DNA genes?
    F⁺ cell
  58. A condition in which a viral infection does not cause immediate cell death is known as ___.
  59. A closed circle DNA w/few genes and are nonessential to the cell is known as a what?
  60. T or F; Griffith's landmark experiments of 1928 demonstrated that
    bacterial recombinations with viruses take place so long as the viruses are
    • False
    • Response:  Griffith's landmark experiments of 1928 demonstrated that an unknown transforming substance passed from dead S strain to live R strain bacteria.
  61. T or F; Genetic recombination is the alteration of the bacterial
    chromosome by a change in its nucleotide sequence.
    • False
    • Response:  Genetic recombination is the transfer of plasmid or chromosomal DNA fragments laterally from donor to recipient cell.
  62. T or F; Transformations are generally more common than conjugations because DNA passes easily through the recipient cell's wall and membrane.
    • False
    • Response:  Transformations are generally less common than conjugations because DNA does not pass easily through the recipient cell's wall and membrane.
  63. T or F; Transformation appears to be the major mechanism for antibiotic transfer.
    • False
    • Response:  Conjugation appears to be the major mechanism for antibiotic transfer.
  64. Name 2 terms that pertain to transformation.
    • Griffith, 1928
    • Cell Competence
  65. Name 5 terms related to conjugation.
    • Conjugation pilus
    • F⁺ donor cell
    • F⁻ recipient cell
    • F factor
    • Rolling circle mechanism
  66. What is F factor?
    A plasmid containing about 100 genes
  67. Name 7 terms related to transduction.
    • Viruses as agent for HGT
    • Bacteriophage
    • Lytic & Lysogenic cycles
    • Virulent phages
    • Prophages
    • Temperate phages
    • Generalized & specialized transduction
Card Set
Alcamo's Ch 9
Ch 9 cards