1. Ergonomic aids
    • substances used to imporve exercise and athletic performance
    • *many are not effective
    • *some are dangerous
  2. 3 types of ergonomic aids
    -anabolic steroids

    • -DHEA
    • *dehydropiandrosterone

  3. Caffeine, Ephedrine, Carnitine, Chromium, and RIbose AND ergonomic aid use
    these are used to increase energy levels and optimize fuel use
  4. (ergogenic substance) what does Androstenodione do?
    -it is an anabolic steroid that is used to increase blood testosterone
  5. What are the claims surrounding androstenodione? (4)
    -increase lean body mass

    -sexual performance


    -decrease body fat
  6. What do studies show on androstenodione?
    no effects on size, strength, or body composition
  7. (ergogenic substance) What is caffeine used for? (3)
    -to improve endurance

    -delay fatigue

    -enhance fat loss
  8. What is an effective dose of caffeine?
    5-6  per kg of body weight
  9. Is carnitine essential in our diet?
  10. (ergogenic substance) Why is carnitine essential to our diet?
    it has a role of fat oxidation
  11. Studies on carnitine (4)
    -decreased muscle pain

    -increased weight loss


    -cardiovascular function and strength

    ***studies show mixed results
  12. (ergogenic substance) What does chromium do?
    enhances insulin sensitivity
  13. What were the initial results of chromium?
    showed an increase in muscle mass and decrease in body fat
  14. (ergogenic substance) what is Conjugated linocleic acid (CLA)
    -polyunsaturated fatty acid found in lamb, beef, and dairy products
  15. What have studies shown in CLA? (4)
    • -decrease in body fat
    • -decrease in triglycerides
    • -VLDL cholesterol
    • -increase in resting metabolic rate
  16. (ergogenic substance) How is creatine used in the body?
    as a source of muscle energy in the form of phosphocreatine
  17. Why dont some people respond to creatine?
    due to the amount of creatine in the msucle prior to supplementation
  18. (ergogenic substance) Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
    it has a link to testosterone thus making people think it is to increase muscle mass
  19. DO studies show any significant evidence on DHEA?
    no, it does not show any evidence that DHEA has an anablic effect
  20. (ergogenic substance) Why do people use ephedra? (3)
    -weigth loss

    -increased in energy

    -enhanced performance
  21. studies on ephedra (2)
    -when paired with caffeine, it can show promote weight loss short term.

    -no research on long term effectiveness or complications
  22. Whats nickname of ephedra?
    Ma Huang
  23. WHat year did FDA banned dietary supplements containing ephedrine?
  24. What year was androstenodione declred illegal by FDA?
  25. How much protein do athletes need a day?
    1.2-1.7 grams per kilo a day
  26. HOw much protein do athletes typically take in?
    2.5-3.5 grams per kilo
  27. (recommended diet) what percent is recommended for carbs?
    60%, depending on the vigorous of exercise
  28. (recommended diet) what percent is recommended for fats?
    15-25 percent from fat
  29. (recommended diet) what percent is recommended for protein
  30. For endurance training, how much protein is recommnedde?
    1.4 - 1.6 g/kilo
  31. Eating disorder
    psychiatric condition involving extreme body dissatisfaction and long term eating patterns harming the body
  32. Disordered eating
    variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors used to reduce weight
  33. 5 factors that contribute to eating disorder?
    -family environment

    -media images

    -socio cultural values

    -personality traits

    -genetic and biological factors
  34. (factors that contirbute to eating disorders) family environment (2)
    -families with an anorexic member seem to have more rigid family sructure

    -family with a bulimia member show a less stable family organization
  35. (factors that contirbute to eating disorders) media images (2)
    -computers enhanced images of perfect bodies are over the media

    -adolescents may not always distinguish reality from media fantasy
  36. (factors that contirbute to eating disorders) Sociocultural values
    -western culture values slenderness as beautiful
  37. (factors that contirbute to eating disorders) Personality traits
    • -individuals with eating disorders exhbit specific personality traits
    • *difficult to tell if it is the traits causing the disorder
  38. (factors that contirbute to eating disorders) genetic biological factors
    -probability of having an eating disorder is several times higher if a biological relative also has one
  39. Anorexia nervosa
    medical disorder in which unhealthful behaviors are used to maintain a body weight less than 85% of expected weight.
  40. what percent of anorexics are young girls and women?
  41. what percent of anorexics will die from complications?
    5-20 percent
  42. What is amernorrhea and what is it linked to?
    -no mentrual periods for at least 3 months

    -linked to anorexia
  43. symptoms of anoerixa nervosa (3)
    -restrictive eating practices

    -unhealthful and distorted body image

    -they do not have to have a low BMI to be anorexics

    ***more symptoms but we already know them
  44. 4 health risks associated with anorexia
    -electrolyte imbalance

    -cardiovascular problems

    -gastrointestional problems

    -bone problems
  45. What is bulimia nervosa?
    eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
  46. whats binge eating?
    eating large amount of food in a short period of time
  47. WHat is purging?
    an attempt to get rid of food by vomitting, laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise or other means
  48. What percent of women does bulimia affect?
    1-4 percent
  49. what percent of bulima patients will die from complications?
    1 percent
  50. ON average binge eating occurs?
    at least twice a week for 3 months
  51. symptoms of bulimia (3)
    -binge eating


    -negative and distorted body image
  52. 6 health risks of bulimia patients
    -electrolyte imbalance

    -gastrointestinal problems

    -dental problems

    -calluses on backs of hands or knuckles

    -swelling of cheeks or jaw area

    -burst esophagus
  53. 3 unhealthful bheaviors that comprises disordered eatign
    -binge-eating disorder

    -chronic overeating

    -chronic dieting
  54. symptoms of binge eating disorder (5)
    -often overweight

    • -chaotic eating behaviors
    • *too fast, too much

    -negative self esteem

    -often asosciated with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders

    -lack of control when binging
  55. Health risks for binge eating disorder (3)
    -increase risk of overweight

    -foods that are usually eaten are high fat and sugars

    -stress may lead to psychological effects
  56. 5 symptoms of chronic dieting
    -preoccupation with food, weight, calories

    -strict dieting

    -excessive exercise

    -loss of concentration

    -increased criticism of body
  57. 5 health risks of chronic dieting
    • -poor nutrient and energy intakes
    • *low calories

    • -decreased energy expenditure due to reduced basal metabollic rate
    • *decrease ability in exercise

    -increased risk for eating disorder
  58. What does female athlete triad consist off?
    -disordered eating

    - mentrual dysfunction

  59. 4 people that are vital to treating eating disorders


    -nutritional counselors

    -psychicatric counselors
  60. 3 thigns treatment plans include for treating eating disorders
    -nutritional rehab

    -psychosocial interventions

Card Set
sports nut and eating disorders