1. Spain
                                                                  i.      New constitution drafted in 1875 under King Alfonso XII established a parliamentary government dominated by two political groups, the Conservatives and the Liberals, whose members stemmed from the same small social group of great landowners allied with a few wealthy industrialists
  2. Suffrage
                                                                  i.      Since suffrage was limited to propertied classes, Liberals and Conservatives alternated in power but followed the same conservative publicities
  3. Spain's defeat
    •                                                               i.      Spain’s defeat in Spanish-American War in 1898 and loss of Cuba and Philippines to the US increased with discontent with the status quo
    • 1.      When a group of young intellectuals known as the Generation of 1898 called the political and social reforms, both Liberals and Conservatives attempted to enlarge the electorate and win masses’ support for their policies
  4. Attempted reforms
    • a.      Attempted reforms did little to allay the unrest and the growth of industrialization in some areas resulted in more workers being attracted to the radical solutions of socialism and anarchism
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Violence in Barcelonaà brutal suppression of rebels by military forces
    • 1.      Reform would not be easily accomplished because the Catholic Church, the landowners, and the army remained tied to a conservative social order
  5. Italy
    •                                                               i.      Emerged as a geographically united state with pretensions to great power status
    • 1.      Internal weaknesses undermined claim
    • a.      Many Italians put loyalty to their families, towns, and regions above their loyalty to the new state
    •                                                               i.      Sectional differences—poverty of south vs. industrialized north—weakened any sense of community
    • 1.      Most Italian leaders were northerners who treated southern Italians with contempt
    • a.      The Catholic church, which had lost control of the Papal States as a result of unification, even refused to accept the existence of the new state
  7. Chronic turmoil
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Chronic turmoil between workers and industrialists undermined the social fabric
    • 1.      Few Italians in the new Italy: only 2.5 percent of the people could vote for the legislative body
  8. 1882
    •                                                               i.      1882: the number was increased, but only to 10%
    • 1.      Italian government was unable to deal effectively with these problems because of the extensive corruption among government officials and the lack of stability created by ever-changing government coalitions
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