MIC 541-Lecture 25

  1. What is the purpose of Clinical Microbiolist?
    • Asist physicians in diagnosis and treatment of infectous disease
    • Determine etiology
    • Determine susceptibility of etiologic agent to antibiotics
  2. Clinical Microbiologist methods
    • culture
    • direct detection
    • serology
  3. Cell culture can be performed with:
    • living cells
    • viruses
    • highly fastidious bacteria
  4. Cell culture is useful because it allows for:
    observation fo cytopathic effects
  5. Arificial culture medium is characterized by:
    • non-living
    • liquid or solid
  6. Artificial culture medium is useful for cultivating:
    bacteria and fungi
  7. Liquid broth media is composed of:
    • nutrients for growth
    • e.g. thioglycollate and breain heart infusion
  8. Disadvantages of liquid broth media are:
    purity issues
  9. Growth can be seen in Liquid broth media by observing the: 
  10. Esmaples of liquid broth media are:
    heart brain infusion and thioglycollate
  11. Turbidity on liquid broth indicates:
  12. Turbidity of broth increase 1:1 with what other aspect?
  13. Detecting mixed cultures:
  14. Solid media is made from
  15. agar forms a solid above what temperature?
    greater than or equal to 45 degrees celcius
  16. a colony begins with:
     a single organism
  17. Advantages of sold media:
    • can detect purity
    • can detect morphology
  18. Disadvantages of soldi media are:
    sensitivity and standardization
  19. Blood and chocolate agars are examples of:
    solid media
  20. Examples of solid media are:
    blood and chocolate
  21. Enriched media is used for:
    nutritionally fastidious organisms grow on
  22. Examples of Enriched media are:
    chocolate and blood agars
  23. Bacterial types that need enriched media:
    Haemophilus and Neisseria
  24. Neisseriand Haemophilus need what type of media?
  25. What does Enriched media supply advantagously?
    Vitamins, minerals, cofactors
  26. Which type of media provides vitamins, co factors and minerals?
    Enriched media
  27. Selective media is used for:
    selection of certain organsims and inhibition of others
  28. selective agenst usde in media include:
    dyes, antibiotics and salts
  29. Selective media is most useful when:
    Normal flora need to be inhibited
  30. Examples of Selective media are:
    MacConkey, CNA, Mannitol Salt
  31. MacConkey, CNA and Mannitol Salt are all exmaples of what type of media?
    Selctive media
  32. MacConkey is made iwth what dye?
    crystal violet
  33. CNA contains what selective agents?
    colistin and nalidixic acid
  34. Mannitol Salt contains what selective agent?
    Sodium chloride
  35. Differential Media is used to:
    make different organisms look different
  36. Differential gaent used are:
    • sugars
    • ph indicators
  37. Differential media is useful when:
    normal flora must be differntiated from pathogens
  38. Examples of Differential media are:
    MacConkey agar and Mannitol Salt agar
  39. The differential agent of Mannitol Salt agar is:
  40. The differential agent of MacConkey agar is:
  41. Selective-Differential media combines advantages of both for use in:
    stol specimens
  42. Examples of Selective-Differential media are:
    MacConkey and Mannitol Salt
  43. Critical factors are:
    • Disease
    • Body site
    • susptected pathogens
    • presense or basence of normal flora
  44. Incubation considerations are:
    • atmosphere
    • temperature
    • time
  45. types of Atmosphere for incubation are:
    • aerobic
    • anaerobic
    • increased C02 (5%)
  46. temperature types for incubation are generally:
    • 35-37 degrees Celsius
    • 25 degrees Celsius for some fungi sporulation
  47. Incubation times are generally:
    24-48 hours
  48. Macroscopic morphology includes:
    • colony type
    • Hemolysis
    • Pure or mixed
  49. Colony type includes:
    size, shape, consistency and color
  50. Hemolysis (on blood agar) can be:
    alpha, beta and gamma
  51. Pure or mixed cultures can be determined by:
    visual inspection of differences
  52. A molar tooth colony look like:
    A molar took, surrounded by petals
  53. Medusa head colonies look like:
  54. Swarming proteus colonies look like
    Bulls eye/target
  55. Alpha hemolysis looks like:
    Dark greenish agar under colonies (incomplete)
  56. Beta hemolysis looks like:
    Complete hemolysis. The agar appear lightened or yellow under the colonies
  57. Gamma Hemolysis looks like:
    No hemolysis. The agar appears unchanged under the colonies
  58. Microscopic morphology includes:
    • Gram reaction
    • Shape
    • Arrangement
    • Size
    • Spore and Capsule
    • Acid fast staining
    • ALL of a single organism
  59. Staph looks like
  60. strep looks like
  61. pneumococci are arranged in:
  62. Acid fast staining positive reactions looks like:
  63. Acid fast stain negative reaction looks like:
  64. Acid fast staining indicates:
  65. Identification of microbe can be performed by:
    macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and physiological tests
  66. Physiological tests are generally of this formula:
    enzyme +substrate = product which is then detected.
  67. Catalase detects what?
  68. H202 and catalase results in:
  69. Glucose fermentation is usually detected by:
    pH indicator (glucose breakdown leads to lowered pH)
  70. Direct detection of microbes can be carried out by:
    • Microscopy
    • Tests for antigens
    • molecular tests
  71. Molecular tests include:
    probes and PCR
  72. Tests for antigens require what
    specific antibodies to create agglutination reactions
  73. An example of a test for an antigen is
    EIA or enzyme immunoassay
  74. Enzyme immunoassay is what type of detection method?
    Direct detection: test for antigen
  75. Microscopy includes what tests:
    • gram stain
    • acid fast stain
    • direst flourescent antibody stain (DFA)
  76. gram stain, acid fast stain and direct flourescent antibody stain are examples of:
  77. Enzyme immunoassay is carried out by these steps:
    • 1.) antibody bounds to solid phase
    • 2.) add antigen slution and wash off
    • 3.) add specific antibody conjuated to enzyme
    • 4.) add substrate
    • 5.) view for color reaction
  78. An example of an Enzyme immunoassay is:
    Step A detection
  79. Molecular probes are:
    complements to DNA
  80. Serology method is direct or indirect?
    Indirect method -detect s specifi antibodies to infectous agents
  81. Serology requires:
    antibodies present in a high concentration
  82. Recent infection can be detected by serological methods if data show:
    greater than or equal to 4 fold rise in titer
  83. Past infection can is edtected via serological methods when:
    there is less than a four fold increase in titer
  84. no present titer means:
    no infection
  85. indications for serological tests:
    • inability to diagnose infection directly
    • for epidemiologic survey
    • determine immune status
  86. The best indicator for immunity is a:
    serological test
  87. the best indicator of population exposure is what method?
    serological tests
  88. If culture is impossible the most rapid and accurate method of detecting/identifying an infection is:
    Serological assay
  89. convalescent means:
    recovering from an infection
  90. Which type of test can identify both acute and retrospective infections?
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MIC 541-Lecture 25
MIC 541-Lecture 25, Creighton Pharmacy