NASM CPT Chpt - 5

  1. Name/Describe the 3 Anatomical Planes.
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    • Saggittal Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves

    Frontal Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.

    Transverse Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
  2. Describe: Medial
    Positioned near the middle of the body
  3. Describe: Lateral
    Positioned towards the outside of the body
  4. Describe: Contralateral
    Positioned of the opposite side of the body
  5. Describe: Ipsilateral
    Positioned on the same side of the body
  6. Make a mental image of the 4 Planes
    1) Medial
    2) Lateral
    3) Contralateral
    4) Ipsilateral
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  7. Describe: Superior
    Positioned above a point of reference
  8. Describe: Inferior
    Positioned below a point of reference
  9. Describe: Proximal
    Positioned nearest the center of the body
  10. Describe: Distal
    Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
  11. Describe: Anterior (or Ventral)
    Positioned on the front of the body
  12. Describe: Posterior
    Positioned on the back of the body
  13. Make a mental image of:
    1) Superior 
    2) Inferior
    3) Proximal 
    4) Distal
    5) Anterior (or Ventral)
    6) Posterior
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  14. The Sagittal plane includes which 3 movements?
    • 1. Flexion 
    • 2. Extension
    • 3. Hyperextension
  15. Flexion
    A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases
  16. Extension
    A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases
  17. Hyperextension
    Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit of ROM
  18. Sagittal Plane Motion/Axis/Example's
    Forward and Back movements

    • Motion: Flextion/Extentision
    • Axis: Coronal

    • Exercises include:
    • 1) Biceps Curl
    • 2) Triceps Pushdowns
    • 3) Squat
    • 4) Front Lunge
    • 5) Calf Raise
    • 6) Walking/Running
    • 7) Vertical Jumping
    • 8) Climbing stairs
  19. The Frontal plane includes which 2 movements?
    Abduction and Adduction
  20. Abduction
    A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
  21. Adduction
    A movement in the frontal plane towards the midline of the body
  22. Frontal Plane Motion/Axis/Examples

    Exercises include: 
    1) abduction/adduction ---?
    2) Lateral Flexion --- ?
    3) Eversion/inversion --- ?
    • NOT front to back movements
    • Side to side movements

    Axis: Anterior-posterior

    • Exercises include: 
    • 1) abduction/adduction --- Side lateral raise
    • 2) Lateral Flexion --- Side lung
    • 3) Eversion/inversion --- side shuffle
  23. The Transverse plane includes which 4 movements?
    • Internal Rotation
    • External Rotation
    • Horizontal Abduction
    • Horizontal Adduction
  24. Internal Rotation:
    Rotation of a joint towards the middle of the body
  25. External Rotation
    Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
  26. Horizontal Abduction
    Movement of the arm of thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position
  27. Horizontal Adduction:
    Movement of the arm of thigh in the transverse plane from an lateral position to a anterior position
  28. Transverse Plane Motion/Axis/Examples
    • Rotational Movement
    • Diagonal Movements

    Axis: Longitudinal

    • Exercises include:
    • 1) Trunk rotation
    • 2) Throwing
    • 3) Golfing
    • 4) Swinging a bat
  29. Name the 4 Scapular Motions:
    Give definitions of each
    Scapular Rotation: Abduction of the scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline

    Scapular Protraction: Adduction of the scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline

    Scapular Depression: Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula

    Scapular Elevation: Upward (superior) motion of the scapula
  30. Name the 3 primary types of muscle action:
    • Isotonic: (contant muscle tension)
    • -Eccentric
    • -Concentric

    Isometric: (constant muscle length)

    Isokinetic: (constant velocity of motion)
  31. Isotonic Performance
    Force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion.
  32. Eccentric
    An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
  33. Eccentric Performance
    • Moving in the same direction as force
    • Decelerates or reduces force
  34. Concentric
    When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscles
  35. Concentric Performance
    • -Moving in opposite direction of the force
    • -Accelerates of produces force
  36. Isometric
    When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length.
  37. Isometric Performance
    • No visible movement with or against resistance
    • Dynamically stabilizes force
  38. Isokenetic
    When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
  39. Isokenetic Performance
    • The speed of movement is fixed, and resistance varies with the force extended
    • Requires sophisticated training equipment often seen in rehabilitation of exercise physiology laboratories
  40. Force
    An influence applied by one object to another, which results in acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
  41. Length Tension-Relationship
    The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
  42. Force Couple
    Muscle Groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
  43. Rotary Movement
    Movement of the bones and joints around them
  44. Torque
    • Force that produces rotation
    • Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or NM
  45. Motor Behavior
    HMS response to internal/external environment stimuli
  46. Motor Control
    How the CNS integrates internal/external sensory info with previous experiences to produce a motor response
  47. Motor Learning
    Utilization of motor control process through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in one's capacity to produced skilled movement.
  48. Motor Development
    The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan
  49. Muscle Synergies
    Groups of muscle that are recruited by the CNS to produce movement
  50. Proprioception
    The cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all mechanoreceptors that sense the body position and limb movement
  51. Sensorimotor Integration
    Ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory info and to select and execute the proper motor response
  52. Feedback
    The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning
  53. Internal feedback
    Information provided form internal source (within the body)
  54. External Feedback
    Information provided form external source (outside of the body)
Card Set
NASM CPT Chpt - 5
NASM CPT Chpt - 5