Psych Test : Social

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  1. Principles of sociocultural level of analysis
    • human beings are social animals and we have a basic need to belong
    • culture influences behavior
    • because humans are social animals, they have a social self
    • people's views of the world are resistant to change
  2. Cognitive Dissonacne
    • Theory says that the human being feels tension and discomfort when holding inconsistent ideas
    • I want to get to x so I have to go through Y
  3. Attribution
    how people interpret and explain the causes of behavior
  4. Actor-Observer Effect
    Attribution of behavior depends on whether we are performing the behavior or observing it
  5. Self-Serving Bias
    • Attributing our successes to dispositional factors and blaming failures on situational factors
    • protects our self-esteem (Greenberg)
    • exception: those who are severely depressed make more dispositonal attributions
  6. Social Identity theory
    • Person's sense of who they are by identfying with a group
    • sense of belonging
    • Taijfel argued that people built their own identities from their group memberships, natural for us to be apart of groups
  7. Social learning theory
    Theory that we learn social behaviour by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  8. Conformity
    one of the key ways that a society or culture passes down its values and behaviours to its members.
  9. Groupthink
    Characterized by group members having a unaminous opinion on an issue, and they do not seek out alternative or dissenting opinions
  10. Informational social influence
    based on the way people cognitively process information about a situation
  11. Normative social influence
    conform to avoid rejection or gain social approval
  12. Participant observation
    Researchers immerse themselves in a social setting for an extended period of time and observe behavoir.
  13. Overt
    Participants know they are being obvserved
  14. Advantages of Overt
    • Researcher is open about intentions
    • Use of a "sponsor" decreases hostility
  15. Disadvantages of Overt
    Observer Effect
  16. Example of Overt
    William Whyte, Street Corner Society (1943)
  17. Covert
    Participants are not informed of being observed
  18. Advantages of Covert
    • Access to Social groups who normally wouldn't give consent 
    • No "observer effect"
  19. Disadvantages of Covert
    • Ethical concerns: trust is gained through deceit, intentions are not discloses; no informed consent
    • Difficulties
    • data can be distorted ( no note-taking - data relied on memory, no interviews for fear of being discovered
    • stressful for researcher
    • Going "native" - become one of them
  20. Example of Covert
    Festinger- When Prophecy Fails
  21. Fritz Heider
    We interpret behavior in terms of internal (dispositional) and/or external (situational) factors
  22. Fundamental attribution error
    • Underestimate situational factors and overestimate dispositional factors
    • Jones and Harris, 1967
  23. Modesty Bias
    Explain failures in terms of lack of ability
  24. Kashima and Triandis (1986)
    • Americans tended to attribute success to their ability while Japanese attributed to their lack of ability
    • More collective nature of Asian societies
  25. In-group and Out-group
    Social identity theory states that the in-group will discriminate against the out-group to enhance their-self-image
  26. Kandinsky vs. Klee study
    • Henry Tajfel
    • Aim of the experiment was to determine what degree of group distinction was necessary for partcipants to display intergroup discrimination; testing the idea that discrimination can occur between groups.
    • A sample of 48 school boys 14-15 yrs old was collected, they were shown 12 slides of paintings, 6 by Kindinsky, 6 by Klee and were asked their preferences.
  27. Serge Moscovici
    Theory of social representations
  28. Social Representations
    offers a new approach for studying the media and citizens. How they make up societal and political issues in our generation
  29. Caroline Howarth
    • Brixton Study
    • People living in Brixton enjoyed the place, people living outside said it was filled with crime and was horrible
  30. Sterotypes
    • to inflict a particular trait or behaviour
    • affects our moods behaviour because it tends to show people behave consistently with their sterotype.
  31. Steele and Aronson's 1995 study about the effects of sterotypes
    When one person or group does something disruptive, they are identified with the whole group. They separated groups into racial stereotypes.
  32. Illusory correlations
    The differential perception of majority and minority groups could result solely from the cognitive mechanisms involved in processing information about stimulus events that differ in their frequencies of co-occurances
  33. Snyder and Swann study about introversion and extroversion
    college students were asked to interview other students. First they were provided with info about the other student, some were told the other student was outgoing and sociable while some were told the other student was shy and turned inward. The results of the interview tended to confirm these expectations, although in reality the descriptions were matched randomly to the students being interviewed.
  34. Social desirability effect
    When a participant responds in accordance to social norms, or in a manner in which they believe the researcher would desire, rather than how they truly feel or believe.
  35. Observational learning theory
    learning by watching and imitating
  36. Albert Bandura
    • Social learning theory
    • aggression study
  37. Factors of social learning theory
    • attention
    • retention
    • motor reproduction
    • motivation
  38. Factors influencing whether an observer decides to imitate
    • Consistency: model behaves consistently across situations
    • Identification with the model: we tend to imitate models who are like ourselves
  39. Strengths of social learning theory
    • explains how behaviors our passed down in families and cultures
    • children can acquire behavior without trail-and-error
  40. Weaknesses of social learning theory
    • child might learn from a model but not exhibit the behavior for some time; how do we know the behavior's cause is the observation
    • some people never learn a behavior they've observed  social learning theory does not explain this
  41. Compliance
    the result of direct pressure to respond to a request
  42. 6 factors influencing likelihood
    • authority
    • commitment
    • liking
    • reciprocity
    • scarcity
    • social proof
  43. Reciprocity principle
    • basic norm of human culture
    • people feel they need to "return the favor"
  44. door-in-the-face technique
    one feels that the other person has already compromised on what he or she wanted, and that this compromise should therefore be acknowledged with some behaviour.
  45. Cialdini's study 1975
    asking university students if they would be willing to chaperone a group of jouvenile delingquents on a day at the zoo. Then asked for counselors for 2 years and then agreed to chaperone
  46. goal gradients
    the longer people commit themselves to something, the less likely they are to abandon the goal
  47. foot-in-the-door technique
    getting people to make a commitment to something small, with the hope of persuading them to agree to something larger.
  48. Dicerson et al 1974
    shower survey ( you got this)
  49. low-balling
    Cialdini et al. 1974
    asked students to be part of study at 7 am, little were willing, second group asked same favor but not given time and then told 7 am, still participated even though they could drop out
  50. hazing
    a series of initiation rites in order to join an exclusive group
  51. Conformity
    one of the key ways that a society or culture passes down its values and behaviours to its members  Indirect form of social influence
  52. Asch Study 1951
  53. confederates
    people part of a study, and they are unknown to the participant
  54. factors that influence likelihood to conform
    • group size
    • unanimity
    • confidence
    • self-esteem
  55. criticisms of Asch study
    • question of artificiality and ecological validity
    • ethical considerations- participants deceived- made to feel anxiety about performance
    • bias interpretation of findings
    • culture has limited the validity of the study
  56. reasons why a minority can influence a majority
    • dissenting opinions produce uncertainty and doubt
    • such opinions show that alternatives exist
    • consistency shows that there is a commitment to the alternative
  57. Stanley Milgram experiment and ethical considerations
  58. Zimbardo and Standford prison experiment
  59. obedience is highest when
    • person giving orders is close at hand
    • authority figure supported by prestigious institution
    • victim is depersonalized or at a distance
    • no other participants were seen disobeying the experimenter
  60. culture
    norms and values that define a society
Card Set
Psych Test : Social
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