1. I.                   Transformation of the Urban Environment
    • a.      Important consequence of industrialization and population explosion of 19th was urbanization
    •                                                               i.      Urban dwellers made up increasing percentage of European population
    •                                                             ii.      1800= 40% in Britain, 25% France and Germany, 10% in e. Europe
    •                                                           iii.      1914: urban inhabitants= 80%, 45% France, 60% Germany, 30% e. Euro. 
  2. City sizes
    • a.      City sizes also expanded, especially in detribalized countries
    •                                                               i.      1800: 21 European cities with populations over 100,000à 1900: 147
    • b.      Urban populations grew faster than the general population primarily because of the vast migration from rural areas to cities due to unemployment, land hunger, and physical want
    •                                                               i.      Urban centers offered these things
    •                                                             ii.      Health and living conditions also contributed to migration
  3. Improving Living Conditions
                                                                  i.      1840s: Urban reformers, like Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf Virchow and Solomon Neumann, pointed to filthy living conditions as cause of disease and urged sanitary reformsà legislative acts created boards of health that brought governmental action to bear on public health issues
  4. Urban medical officers
    • 1.      Urban medical officers and building inspectors were authorized to inspect dwellings for public health hazards
    • 2.      New building regulations made it more difficult for private contractors to build shoddy housing
  5. Public Health Act of 1875
    • a.      Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain prohibited the construction of new buildings without running water and an internal drainage system
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      For first time in Western history, the role of municipal governments had been expanded to include detailed regulations for the improvement of the living conditions of urban dwellers
  6. Essential to Public Health
    •                                                               i.      Essential to public health was ability to bring clean water into the city and to expel sewage from it
    • 1.      Problem of fresh water was solved by system of dams and reservoirs that stored the water and aqueducts and tunnels that carried it from the countryside to the city and into individual dwellings
    • a.      Regular private baths accessible to more due to gas heaters and electric heaters that allowed hot baths
    • b.      Shower also appeared
  7. Treatment of wastewater
    •                                                               i.      Treatment of wastewater was improved by building mammoth underground pipes that carried raw sewage far from city for disposal
    • 1.      German cities began constructing sewer systems
    • a.      Frankfurt: “From the toilet to the river in half an hour”
    • b.      London devised system of five enormous sewers that discharged loads 12 mi from city, where waste was chemically treated
    • c.       This eventually led to polluted lakes and rivers
  8. Housing needs
    •                                                               i.      Housing Needs also acknowledged
    • 1.      Overcrowded, disease ridden slums= dangerous to physical, political and moral health
    • a.      VA Huber, the foremost early German housing reformer, said good housing was a prerequisite for a stable family life and a stable society
    • 2.      Early efforts emphasized middle-class belief in efficacy of private enterprise
  9. Reformers
    • a.      Reformers, like Huber believed the construction of model dwellings renting at a reasonable price would force other private landlords to elevate their housing standards
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Example was work of Octavia Hill, who rehabilitated some old dwellings and created housing for 3500 tenants
  10. Number and size of cities
    • 1.      As number and size of cities continued to mushroom, governments decided that private enterprise couldn’t solve housing crisis
    • a.      1890, British law empowered local town councils to collect new taxes and construct cheap housing for the working classes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      London and Liverpool were first to use powers, then Germany
  11. Failed meausres
    • a.      Everywhere, however, these lukewarm measures failed to do much to meet the real housing needs of the working classes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In housing and other areas, the liberal principle that the government that governs least governs best had proved untrue
    • 1.      more and more, governments were stepping into areas of activity they would never have touched earlier
  12. Housing
    •                                                               i.      Housing was one area of urban reconstruction
    • 1.      As urban populations expanded in the 19th, the older layout, confining the city to a compact area enclosed by defensive walls—worthless anyway from a military standpoint—were pulled down, and the areas were converted into parks and boulevards 
  13. Broad streets
    1.      Broad streets served a military purpose—the rapid deployment of troops to crush civil disturbances—they also offered magnificent views of the city hall, the university, and the parliament building, all powerful symbols of middle-class social values
  14. Like Vienna
    • 1.      Like Vienna, many European urban centers were redesigned during the second half of the 19th
    • a.      Reconstruction of Paris after 1850 by Emperor Napoleon III was the most famous project and provided a model for other cities
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Old residential districts in the central city, many of them working-class slums, were demolished and replaced with town halls, government office building, retail stores including the new department stores, museums, cafes, and theaters, all of which provided for the shopping and recreational pleasures of the middle classes
  15. City expansion
    • 1.      As cities expanded and entire groups of people were displaced from urban centers by reconstruction, city populations spilled over into the neighboring villages and countryside
    • a.      Construction of streetcar and commuter train lines by the turn of the century enabled both working0class and middle-class populations to live in their own suburban neighborhoods far removed from their places of work
    • Cheap, modern transportation essentially separated home and work for many Europeans
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