A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory system
A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
A specialized are of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate: often termed the pacemaker of the heart
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the SA node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
The superior chamber of the heart that receives the blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles
The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium, and in turn, forces blood into the arteries.
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
Cardiac Output (Q)
Heart Rate x Stroke Volume, the overall performance of the heart
The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.
Collects oxygen and transports it to the blood stream
Process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move the air into the body.
The process of actively of passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
Active or Passive
Structures of the Respiratory Pump:
- 1. Sternum
- 2. Ribs
- 3. Vertebra
- Muscles (Inspiration):
- 1. Diaphragm
- 2. External Intercostals
- 3. Scalenes
- 4. Sternocleidmastoid
- 5. Pectoralis Minor
- Muscles (Expiration):
- 1. Internal Intercostals
- 2. Abdominals
The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal exertion.
Achieved at maximal physical exertion
Does not require oxygen
Oxygen consumption is a product of cardiac output and the aterial-venous difference.
Divided into four chambers
- 1. Two Atria - gather blood
- 2. Two Ventricles - pump blood out
Heart rate and stroke volume make up the _____ ______
Cardiac output = ?
Beats/Minute + How much blood is being pumped