HINF 461 Final Exam.txt

  1. Work Pattern Studies - Typical Questions
    • –How
    • and by whom was the HIS used?

    • –How
    • much time was spent using the HIS?

    • –What
    • effect did the HIS have on other work-related activities?
  2. Work Pattern Studies, Work Sampling and Time motion studies - reasons for conducting
    • •Six reasons for conducting
    • evaluation in health informatics

    • 1.To
    • test a prototype

    • 2.To
    • refine a system

    • 3.To
    • assure its safety

    • 4.To
    • determine the clinical effects of a system

    • 5.To
    • develop a new evaluation methodology

    • 6.To determine the effect of IT upon work
    • patterns of the participants in the healthcare delivery process
  3. Work Pattern Study Methods
    -Subjective Evaluation
    -Time Motion Analysis
    -Reviews of department records
    -Personal Records and Activities
    -Work Sampling-
    • 1. Subjective Evaluation
    • -Used to study the effects of technology upon work patterns
    • -takes the form of questionnaires and interviews
    • - may include assessment of participants attitudes
    • ¨Disadvantages:
    • -give impersise measurements, based on personal bias, influenced by recent events, SHOULD NOT BE USED ON THEIR OWN!

    • Time Motion Analysis
    • •Provides direct measurement of
    • the amount of time a specific worker spends on doing a specific activity
    • •Is carried out by a trained observer
    • •Appropriate when one is trying tocompare two or more different work patterns that produce the same result
    • –e.g.comparing the time spent entering a medication order into the computer via light pen, keyboard, bar-coded chart or a free-hand pen-based operating system
    • - Advantages - Less expensive, one observer can observe different workers and different tasks

    • Reviews of department records
    • •Departmental records or statistics can be reviewed to determine if IT has had an impact upon work patterns

    • •These include:
    • –Retrospective chart reviews
    • –Compiled workload data

    • Advantages
    • - data already collected


    • –Departmental data may provide little insight into what employees typically do on a shift by
    • shift basis
    • –Data quality may be poor
    • –Data maybe incomplete
    • –Data may have a bias

    • Personal Records and Activities
    • •Each person keeps a log of:
    • –The amount of time spent on each activity

    • •Disadvantage:
    • •Recall bias
    • •Problems arise in completing the log during intense periods of activity

    • -Work Sampling
    • •Developed by Tippett in 1935
    • –Consists
    • of a series of spaced observations of activities
    • –Fact
    • finding tool
    • –Based
    • on the laws of probability
    • –Used to measure work and nonwork
    • time of a person or machine
    • –Establishesa time standard for specific work activities


    • •Observations can be made over an
    • extended time period which decreases the time effects of cyclic variations
    • (i.e. day to day, week to week)

    • •Can reduce the Hawthorne effect
    • if no single worker is observed

    • •Study can be interrupted at any
    • time

    • •Not as tedious to perform as a
    • time-motion study


    •Not economical

    • –Observers
    • may spend time idling or walking

    •Not a direct measure of behaviour

    • –Draws
    • conclusions about average behaviour


    • –Need
    • for training

    • –Need
    • high inter-rater reliability
  4. Steps in Designing a Work Pattern Study (advantages, disadvantages)
    • •Step 1: Identify the research
    • objective

    • –Make
    • up research questions

    • –Make
    • a hypothesis that you can accept or reject

    • •Step 2: Identify a study site and
    • obtain the managers approval.

    • –Ensure
    • the study site is “normal” or
    • representative of the entire range of activities that would typically occur

    • –Ensure
    • you measure “routine”
    • and “non-routine”
    • work activities

    • •Step 3: Identify work categories
    • and carefully define the content of each.

    • –Work-activity
    • categories must be selected and defined so as to not leave any doubt in the
    • mind of the observer how each activity should be observed, counted and
    • categorized

    • –All
    • work activities must be accounted for

    •Step 4: Create a data entry form.

    • –Describe
    • and define the categories in writing

    • –Develop
    • an easy to use data-entry or observation record

    • •Step 5: Identify and train
    • appropriate observers

    • –Ensure
    • they understand:

    • •what
    • is being observed

    • •How
    • activities are being measured

    • –Other
    • issues to address include:

    • •Can
    • observers observe without getting in the way of workers

    • •Do
    • any of the categories require observers to know “what the subject is thinking”

    •Step 6: Conduct a pilot study

    • –Allows
    • one to:

    • •Refine
    • the study

    • •Improve
    • and verify observer training processes

    • •Refine
    • the definitions and descriptions of work

    • •Improve
    • data collection forms

    • •Improve
    • study processes

    • •Step 7: Determine the number and
    • type of observations needed.

    • –Total
    • number of observations needed

      n = p(1-p)/σ

    • n
    • = the total number of observations

    • p
    • = expected percent of time required, by the most important category of the
    • study (from the pilot)

    • σ
    • = standard deviation of percentage

    • •Step 8: Determine the frequency
    • of the observations

    •   e.g.
    • Less than 8 per hour

    • •Whether observations will be made
    • at:


    • –Fixed
    • intervals

    • •Step 10: Identify other
    • independent measures of workload that are expected to correlate with the data.

    • –Establish
    • relevant workload measures

    •e.g.  Daily patient census, nurse staffing levels

    •Step 11: Conduct the study

    • –Apprise
    • all staff members being observed

    • –Provide
    • a description of the study goals

    • –Record
    • special events

    • –Record
    • independent measures of workload.

    • •Daily
    • patient census, nurse staffing levels

    • •Step 12: Analyze and interpret
    • data collected

    • –Analysis
    • may include:

    • •T-tests,
    • ANOVA’s

    • •Chi
    • squared

    • •Comparison
    • of mean time percentages

    • •Adjustments
    • to data collected before and after the IT related change

    • –Check
    • the data

    • –Ensure
    • it is representative

  5. What is HCI? Why is HCI important?
    Human Computer Interaction

    • Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and
    • Healthcare

    • •Involves the study of end users
    • and their interaction with computers

    • •Concerned with understanding how people use computer systems,
    • individually and in groups

    • •The field of HCI investigates how
    • people use computer systems, so that better systems can be designed

    • •The
    • healthcare domain is perhaps the most challenging for application of ideas from
    • HCI

    •   “Human-computer
    • interaction (HCI) is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and
    • implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major
    • phenomena surrounding them”

    • •HCI has emerged as an
    • interdisciplinary field of study

    • •Computer
    • science




    • •Engineering
    • etc.

    Important in healthcare because:

    •Problems related to HCI in health care need to be addressed

    • •Need to increase acceptance of
    • systems by end users

    •Need to improve usability

    • •Need to design systems that
    • actually support work practices

    •Need to reduce errors in healthcare

    •Medical errors

    •“Technology-induced” errors

  6. What is Usability?
    • •Usability
    • Testing

    • •Representative
    • users and tasks

    • •“Think
    • Aloud” Protocols

    • •Video
    • Recording

    • •Usability
    • Inspection

    • •Usability
    • “inspector” steps through system

    • •Cognitive
    • Walkthrough

    • •Cognitive
    • Task Analysis

    • •Process
    • centered

    • •Includes
    • focus on mental operations
  7. What is Continuum of studies?
  8. Describe HCI and usability methodology
    •Time to complete each task

    • •Number and percentage of tasks
    • completed correctly

    • •Number and percentage of tasks
    • completed incorrectly

    • •Time required to access
    • information in online help

    • •Time needed to recover from
    • error(s)

    •Total Number of user errors

    •Number of incorrect menu choices

    • •Number of incorrect icons
    • selected

    • •Number of user actions to
    • complete task

    • •Search time (in locating program
    • modules)

    • •Time needed to recover from
    • errors

    •Number of user comments
  9. Describe the analysis of HCI/Usability data
    • •Both
    • qualitative and quantitative

    • qualitative coding of usability issues or problems

    • •Specific
    • instances of problems can also be quantified – if sufficient data points
    • inferential statistics can be run as well (e.g. comparing number of errors
    • between two different interfaces)

    • •Blurs
    • the distinction between “qualitative” and “quantitative” research

    • •The video (of the screens that
    • were recorded) and the audio (of the subjects’ thinking aloud were analyzed

    • •Audio
    • was transcribed

    • •The
    • transcripts were linked to the video footage (by inserting time stamps into the
    • transcripts that corresponded to the video counter)

    • •The
    • audio and video data were coded for

    • •Interface
    • consistency

    • •Response
    • time

    • •Understandability
    • of system messages

    • •Help
    • availability

    • •Comprehension
    • of graphs and tables

  10. What is social network analysis? History, Key definitions and key findings?
    Elizabeth Bott


    • –Kinship
    • studies

    Max Gluckman & Clyde Michell

    • –Urbanization
    • studies

    • –community
    • networks in Africa, India and the UK

    S. F. Nadel

    • –theory
    • of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.[8]


    • –political
    • sociology and networks

    • –social
    • movements and networks

    • –Stanley
    • Milgram

    • •"six
    • degrees of separation“

    •   Barry
    • Wellman

    • •community
    • sociology and the “wired
    • community”

    •social network analysis

    • •“A methodological approach that allows one
    • to analyze the relationships among entities”

    • –e.g.
    • people, departments and organizations

    –(Anderson, 2005)

    •Allows for the study of:

    • –patterns
    • of interactions

    • •Patterns
    • of interactions among people, departments, organizations and so on

    • –Individuals
    • who are embedded in social networks

    • –Emerging
    • from social network structures

    • –Individuals
    • attitudes, norms and behaviours in
    • response to direct and indirect exposure to individuals in a network

    • »(Anderson,
    • 2005)


    • –set
    • of ties between actors 


    • –persons,
    • organizations, departments, teams etc. 


    • Relationships (friendships, contracts, marriages etc)

    • •(Anderson,
    • 2005)

  11. Why Conduct social network analysis?
    • •Discover patterns of
    • relationships that affect both individual and organizational attitudes and behaviour

    • –e.g.
    • adoption, discussion and use of new medical information applications

    • •(Anderson,
    • 2005)
  12. What are social network patterns? What is the method?
    •Five common patterns:





    • –All
    • Channel

    • »(Anderson,
    • 2005)
  13. What is Clinical Simulation Research? History? Continuum of studies? Steps in developing a Clinical Simulation?   VIEW PPT
    • ØSimulations used to test health
    • information systems



    • •Determine
    • impact of the health information system:


    lupon health professional workflow


    • lBefore introduction and use in
    • healthcare settings

    • Ø
    • Steps:
    • 1.
    • 2. Construct testing environement
    • 3. construction of your testing environement - patient data/etc
  14. History and definition of Quality Improvement? What are the origins?
    • lProcesses were analyzed
    • and modified

    • lBest practice approach
    • were developed

    • lWorker feedback and team
    • ownership were key

    le.g. CareMaps

    • lFunction of the type of
    • knowledge work that is being done in health care

    lIn health care:

    lLearning is always taking place

    lLearning is influenced by work

    • lDifferent products and services are
    • constantly being produced

    • lDefinitions of health and disease are
    • not precise

    lPatients can have multiple diagnoses
  15. Quality Improvement - contributions of:
    1. Karl Pearson
    2. Walter Shewart
    3. Deming
    4. Feigenbaum
    5. Juran
    6. Crosby
    7. Taguchi
    8. Ishikawa
    1. Karl Pearson

    2. Walter Shewart

    3. Deming4. Feigenbaum

    5. Juran6. Crosby

    7. Taguchi

    8. Ishikawa
  16. Discuss quality improvement rise in healthcare, mass production, process enhancement, mass customization, co-configuration
    mass production

    process enhancement

    mass customization

  17. How is Quality Improvement a craft in healthcare?

    • lCraft mode
    • of delivery

    • lDoctor
    • diagnoses and treats

    • lMethod of
    • diagnosis and treatment is in the doctor’s hands – how, when, where, by whom

    lPayor pays


    • lSame as
    • fee-for-service

    • lLimit on how
    • much one pays


    • lHealth care
    • was a cottage industry

    • lDelivered by
    • individual professionals:

    • lwho
    • practiced it as a craft or art

    • lLearned
    • through apprenticeship

    • lWorked
    • independently in a decentralized system

    • lWork was
    • tailored to each individual

    • lProcesses
    • were not recorded nor explicitly engineered

    • lHealth
    • professionals were personally accountable for their performance

    • lTherefore, some parts of
    • health care continues to be at the stage of:


    lProcess Enhancement

    lMass Customization


    • lExist in varying types of health care
    • areas and settings

    • lChoice of delivery Strategy depends on
    • the:

    lState of the technology

    lThe strategy of the health care unit

    • lFunction of the type of
    • knowledge work that is being done in health care

    lIn health care:

    lLearning is always taking place

    lLearning is influenced by work

    • lDifferent products and services are
    • constantly being produced

    • lDefinitions of health and disease are
    • not precise

    lPatients can have multiple diagnoses
  18. Discuss quality improvement:
    1. benefits in healthcare
    • lPotential Benefits
    • lProfitability

    • lThere appears to be a clear relationship
    • between profitability and customer satisfaction (in U.S. hospitals)

    lEmployee satisfaction

    • lStudies showing statistical differences
    • in job satisfaction in hospitals where deployed

    lReduced costs

    • l e.g. U. of Michigan Medical Center
    • found 17 of 19 teams showed a positive net cost savings

    • lImproved patient care
    • survival and continuity of care

    • lU. of Utah development of a new protocol
    • (supported by computer systems) for life support increased survival rate from
    • 12 to 42 percent

    lCosts of quality

    • lEstimates of costs of waste and
    • nonconformance in hospitals is 20-40 %!

    • lLegal reservations may
    • have to be overcome

    • lSupporting information
    • systems need to be in place

    • lLack of financial
    • incentives to improve clinical performance can slow down the process

    • lClinical guidelines are
    • hard to implement unless physicians are organized

    • lCQI teams may become too
    • encumbered with processes to achieve results

    • lSome must be ready and
    • able to blast through turf battles

    • lProcesses will lose
    • momentum unless the chief quality officer (CQO) pushes continuously and is a
    • strong supporter of CQI
  19. 3. Link between health information systems and quality
    • lIncreasing the intrinsic
    • motivation of the work force

    • lCapturing the
    • intellectual capital already developed by the work force

    • lReducing the managerial
    • overhead necessary to induce  managerial
    • change

    • lVastly increasing the
    • capacity of the professionally dominated organization to do process analysis

    • lCreating lateral
    • linkages across highly specialized organizational units to increase
    • effectiveness and reduce the process irresponsibility inherent in most health
    • care settings
  20. 2. Definition of quality
    §What is Quality?

    • §Quality is difficult to
    • define

    • §As outlined earlier
    • §Requirements Quality

    §Quality associated with:

    • –meeting total
    • customer requirements

    • –Having the
    • attributes of a service or product meet or exceed customer requirements


    §Quality of Kind

    • §Quality is delights the
    • customer

    • §Having the perceived
    • attributes of the product or service significantly exceed expectations

    §Delighting the customer

    • §
    • –There are a
    • number of definitions of quality

    §What is Quality?

    • §Generally, there are three
    • levels of quality are talked about in the TQI:

    • –Conformance
    • quality

    • –Requirements
    • quality

    –Quality of kind
  21. Discuss quality improvement problems and challenges:
    1. Implementing TQI
    §Implementing TQI

    • §Considerable
    • research has taken place demonstrating:

    –The value of TQI in improving processes

    • –Several demonstration projects have been
    • undertaken in health care showing the potential value of TQI


    • –A number of problems challenges and issues
    • remain in implementing TQI in health care

    • §Sources of Problems and
    • Issues Associated with Implementing TQI

    • §A number of areas still need
    • to be addressed before TQI can move forward in health care:

    –What is quality?

    • –Who defines
    • quality?

    • –What is the role
    • of quality in malpractice suits?

    • –What is the cost
    • of quality?

    • –How do we
    • achieve quality?
  22. What is Qualilty improvement conformance requirements and quality of kind?
    Quality Improvement Conformance Requirements:

    Quality can be broadly classified into Quality of Conformance and Quality of Design. Quality of Conformance is basically meeting the specified quality or the ability to hold to the specified quality of design. Quality of design is to do with meeting or exceeding customer requirement by improved design. 

    Quality of kind

    • §TQI differs from Quality
    • Assurance (QA)

    §TQI is different from QA

    • –QA is
    • conceptualized differently from TQI

    §Quality Assurance

    • –Focuses on
    • conformance quality alone


    • –TQI and QA
    • overlap
  23. What is requirements quality?
    §Quality associated with:

    • –meeting total
    • customer requirements

    • –Having the
    • attributes of a service or product meet or exceed customer requirements

  24. What is quality of kind?
    • §Quality is delights the
    • customer

    • §Having the perceived
    • attributes of the product or service significantly exceed expectations

    §Delighting the customer
  25. What is conformance quality?
    §Quality associated with:

    • –Conforming to
    • specifications

    • –Having a product
    • or service that meets predetermined standards
  26. Discuss quality improvement and organizational performance...
    1. Link between quality and organizational performance
    2. Levels of analysis
    3. Stakeholders
    2. Levels of analysis

    lDiffering Levels of Analysis

    lAll systems are complex

    • lMost analyses of organizational
    • performance focus on:

    lThe organization itself

    • lThe larger socially defined
    • unit that contains the organization

    • lE.g. community, health
    • services region or a system of hospitals

    lSubunits in the organization

    • lE.g. departments and
    • practitioners



    3. Stakeholders - patients, users of the system, etc


    • lInternal and external parties that are interested in the
    • organization

    lHave different desires and needs that need to be met

    • lHave varying expectations and criteria for effectiveness
    • and quality

    lPhysicians operationalize quality

      differently from health care

      administrators and health

  27. DEFINE:

    2. Quality  assurance

    3. Quality improvement
    • Quality Assurance:
    • lQuality Assurance

    • lThe formal, systematic
    • exercise of:

    • lidentifying problems in
    • medical care delivery

    • ldesigning activities to
    • overcome these problems that have been introduced

    • lcorrective actions have been
    • effective

    • Quality Improvement
    • lA management philosophy that
    • views work as a process

    • lin which the customer is
    • central

    • lThe main source of quality
    • defects is problems in the process

    • lThe focus involves every
    • worker in improving processes and setting high standards for performance
  28. Discuss quality improvement and organizational performance...

    1. Classes of measures: structural, process, outcome
    • Classes of measures:
    • 1. Structural:
    • lBased on assessments of:

    lOrganizational features

    lParticipants’ characteristics

    lThat impact on organizational performance

    lDo not assess:

    lWork performed

    lEffort expended

    lMeasure an organization’s:

    lCapacity to permit work

    lE.g. number of staff, machines etc.

    • lPromote effective work
    • 2. Process
    • lBased on evidence relating to the
    • performer’s activities in carrying out work

    • lE.g. reviews of physician
    • decision making and orders

    • lValid if they lead to improved products or
    • better outcomes
    • 3. Outcome
    • lBased on evidence gathered from the
    • objects upon which the work is performed

    • lE.g. measures of patient
    • satisfaction, reduction in costs, increased survival rates etc.

    lFocus of attention:

    • lOn changes produced and
    • results achieved
  29. Discuss measurement and statistics in quality improvement:
    1. Where do methods come from?
    2. Variation
    • 1. Methods:
    • •Have industrial origins

    •Are drawn from the fields of:




    –Health services research

    • 2. Variation
    • •Variation

    –Is the “fat” in the system

    –Needs to be reduced

    • –Affects both clinical and
    • administrative processes

    • –Related to the statistical
    • concept of variance and standard deviation

    •Processes that have little variation

    –Are under control

    •Two Types of Variation

    •Common Cause

    –Inherent variance in a process

    • –Results from how the process is
    • performed

    •Special Source

    • –Variation that arises from a
    • particular source

    –Non-random in nature
  30. 3. QI Measurement tools
    4. Stages of QI
    • 3. QI Measurement tools
    • 1.Flowcharts or diagrams

    2.Cause and effect diagrams

    3.Check sheets

    4.Pareto diagrams or charts


    6.Run charts

    7.Regression analyses

    • 8.Control charts
    • 4. Stages of QI

    1.Describe the process.

    2.Identify the sources of variation.

    • 3.Perform an in-depth analyses to clarify the
    • source of the problem.

    4.Weigh the alternatives.

    •Opportunities for further investigation

    •Aid with making choices for change

    5.Measure improvement

    • •In response to change.
  31. Discuss the design of six sigma:
    1. Definition
    • Design for Six Sigma is
    • about:

    nChanging organizational competencies

    nForm of fundamental change

    • nUsually in response to changing economic
    • conditions and new technologies


    nNeed to ensure the change will be good for the organization

    • nDon’t
    • engage in change for the sake of change
  32. Design of six sigma:
    1. What is good change?
    2. What are basics?
    3. What are goals?
    Good change:


    nwhat and when to change

    nbeing able to sustain the results of change


    Being able to:

    • nfix, upgrade or continuously improve existing
    • processes, products and services

    • Having the insight and
    • creativity to create:

    nnew processes, products and services

    nabandon and redesign those that have become obsolete or incapable

    • Basics?
    • Review:

    • n“sigma” stands for the statistical concept of
    • standard deviation


    • nMeasures variation
    • of process, product or service perspective from a customer
    • requirements perspective


    • n99.9997% of products,
    • services or processes should be without defect
    • What are goals?
    • Failure to meet customer
    • requirements leads to (low sigma):

    nExtra costs





    • nRecall
  33. Discuss design of six sigma:
    1. System of management
    1. System of management

    Emphasizes six themes

    • 1.Genuine focus on
    • the customer

    • 2.Data and
    • fact-driven management

    • 3.Focus on the
    • process

    • 4.Proactive
    • management

    5.Boundaryless collaboration

    • 6.Driving towards
    • perfection, tolerating honest failure

    • n99.9997% of the
    • time
  34. Six Sigma:
    2. Steps
    • What is the Process Behind
    • DFSS?

    Five Steps:






    Step One: Define

    • Clarify customer
    • requirements

    • Understand the customer’s
    • needs

    Front-load the pain

    • Understand all of the
    • requirements in the final design

    Step One: Define

    Occurs in three phases:

    Phase 1: Project Chartering

    • nCreates an
    • understanding of and agreement



    • The purpose,
    • scope and constraints of the task

    • The roles and
    • responsibilities of the participants

    • Outlines the
    • preliminary project schedule


    Step One: Define

    • Phase 2: Finding the Voice of the
    • Customer

    • nGathering,
    • consolidating, sorting, ranking and verifying the requirements that are
    • critical to quality for customers

    • nContains a
    • complete list and description of what the new design must accomplish

    • nDevelops
    • integrated business requirements

    Step One: Define

    Phase 3: High Level Mapping

    • nCatalogue the
    • processes that are affected by or will support the project

    • nProcesses should
    • be mapped out at a high level

    • nBegin to build
    • the foundation for establishing a measurement system

    Step Two: Measure


    ndeveloping future measures of success

    nestablishing tolerance and budgeting

    • Bulk of the work lies in
    • identifying:

    nwhat to measure

    nhow to evaluate

    • Emphasis should be on the
    • flow of work and how it differs

    Step Three: Analyze


    • nCreating
    • innovative concepts for the new product or service

    • nIdentifying how each step in the process contributes its share to
    • the overall performance of the product or process


    nallowance or tolerance for each dimension, feature and step in process/product development

    Step Four: Design

    • Detail the list of design
    • alternatives

    Select the best of the best

    • Focus on testing, testing
    • and more testing

    Focus on the details

    • Examine the remaining
    • alternative ideas in detail for:


    nto predicted capability

    nimpact on customers

    Step Five: Verify

    Test and deploy

    Simulate and optimize

    • Ensure you have the
    • necessary:


    • nMonitoring
    • systems

    nResponse plans


    nbefore the launch

    • To Implement DFSS
    • effectively, managers must:

    • 1.Establish requirements early
    • in the design process.

    • 2.Provide more resources early
    • on

    • 15-25% more
    • resources

    3.Develop product platforms

    • Strategic
    • advantage

    4.Assume the champion’s role

  35. Six Sigma: Tools for measuring
    DFSS Toolkit

    Tools for the Define Phase

    nKano Analysis

    • Way of
    • categorizing requirements very early as;

    nMust haves




    • nConjoint
    • Analysis

    • Prioritizing the
    • relative importance of customer requirements

    • Use surveys and
    • focus groups to determine what combination of features or services best meet
    • their requirements

    • Tools for the Define
    • Phase

    • nQuality Function
    • Deployment

    • Used to define
    • requirements and is used in all phases

    • Series of
    • interlocking matrices

    • Final output is
    • the “House of Quality”


    • Tools for the Measurement
    • Phase



    • Comparisons with
    • other suppliers of similar products or those considered “best in class”

    nCapability Performance

    • Predicting and
    • measuring the capability of the product or process


    • Tools Used in the Analysis
    • Phase

    • nTheory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) or
    • Inventive Problem Solving


    • Structured
    • method for brainstorming

    • Asks the
    • Questions:

    • nWhat happens if we break the object into
    • smaller components?

    • nWhat happens if we strip away most of the
    • components?

    • nWhat happens if we merge several functions at
    • the same time?

    • nHow could this object become “self-correcting”
    • when something breaks?

    • Tools Used for the Analysis
    • Phase

    • nProcess
    • Simulation

    Software tools

    • Brings together
    • software and process data

    • Evaluates costs
    • and yields

    Measures for Simulation


    • Current and
    • potential


    • Decisions in
    • flow and path

    Cycle time




    Non value add

    Measures for Simulation


    Cost per unit


    • Cost (standard
    • rates and overtime rates)





    • Maintenance
    • costs



    • One time or
    • recurring

    Cost per unit

    • Tools Used for the Design
    • Phase

    nAdvanced Idea Generation




    Add on







    • nNarrow down raw
    • ideas

    • Combine related
    • ideas and begin to eliminate obviously fanciful nonstarters

    • Link your
    • creative solutions to customer specifications identified in the Measure and
    • Analyze Phases

    • Use results of
    • these two steps to write

    • Tools Used for the Design
    • Phase

    nPugh Matrix

    • Help to
    • establish product features

    • Ranks options by
    • comparing concepts according to their strengths and weaknesses relative to the

    Pugh Matrix

    • Tools Used for the Design
    • Phase

    nDesign Experiments

    • Test the new
    • design

    • Identify
    • relationship to outcome

    • Why are design
    • experiments important?

    nIdentify factors that affect performance

    nOptimize product/process performance

    • nMinimize variability to achieve a robust
    • design

    • nObtain the most information in the least
    • amount of time and for the least expense

    • Tools Used for the Design
    • Phase

    • Failure Modes and Effects
    • Analysis (FMEA)


    nRisk identification and management tool

    • nIdentifies every conceivable “failure mode” –
    • problems and ways the design could break, injure someone or fail to meet
    • requirements

    • nEach failure mode can have a variety of
    • consequences and differing severities

    • Damage is rated
    • from 1 to 10 with 10 yielding injury or death

    Tools for the Verify Phase


    nFinal phase


    nProcess Documentation and Monitoring

    • Establish a
    • means of identifying defects should they occur

    • Establish a plan
    • for eradicating defects

    • Control charts
    • for monitoring


    nResponse Planning

    Damage Control

    Process Control

    • Assess
    • Effectiveness

    • Continuous
    • Improvement


    • nTools for the
    • Verify Phase


    • nProcess
    • Management

    • Process
    • dashboards

    • Balance
    • scorecards

    • nSummary of
    • crucial measures built into the design to enable real-time feedback and prompt
    • attention to problems and opportunities
  36. Discuss Lean Six Sigma:
    1. Definition
    Focuses on process speed and process efficiency

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a powerful, flexible and proven cost and waste elimination method that has been used successfully in both private and public organizations. It is applicable equally to both industrial/manufacturing processes and transactional/customer service processes.
  37. Discuss Lean Six Sigma
    2. Keys to lean six sigma
    3. Customer focus
    4. Teamwork
    5. What should be measured
    • 2. Keys to lean six sigma
    • - Quality & Speed
    • - Teamwork
    • -Delight Customers
    • -Variation and Defects
    • -Process Flow
    • -Improve processes

    3. Customer focus

    • §Identify what customers
    • define as “quality”

    §How quick they want their products or services delivered?

    • §What they see as a defect?
    • - Delight customers with speed & quality
    • -§Projects begin by defining
    • what:

    §Customers define as quality

    • §Involves
    • seeing everything through the customers eyes

    §Voice of the Customer (VOC)

    • §Customers are
    • being represented in decisions about products and services

    • 4. Teamwork
    • §Organizations can be
    • “immune” to process improvement

    • §Biggest reason is lack of
    • teamwork

    • §Lack of teamwork leads to
    • poor process improvement and outcomes that are not sustainable
    • §Lean Six Sigma recognizes
    • there is a need for:

    §Formal teams

    §Environments that support teamwork

    §People to discuss problems openly without reprisal

    §A sharing and learning environment

    §“Bad news” to be discussed

    • 5. What should be measured
    • §Result or outcome measures

    • §Process measures
  38. Lean Six Sixma:
    1. What are laws 
    2. What are business priorities
    3. Project selection
    • Laws:
    • 1.Customers are important

    2.Speed, quality and low cost are linked

    • 3.You need to eliminate variation and defects, and focus on
    • process flow, if you want to deliver quality, speed and low cost

    4.People have to work together to make the kinds of improvements that customers will notice

    • Business Priorities:
    • §Prior iterations

    §Don’t address business problems

    • §People who used Six Sigma look down on anyone who is not
    • involved in improvement full time

    §Little monitoring of projects

    §Lean Six Sigma

    §Develop a system for project selection

    • §Institute a “tollgate system” for regular project
    • evaluation

    • Project Selection:
    • §Select projects with the biggest payoff


    §Can be completed with existing resources


    §Should start with

    • §Broad company
    • goals

    • §Burning
    • platforms such as:

    §Reaching new customers

    §Reducing overhead costs

    §Speed up how quickly we get to market

    • §Translated
    • into work of in business units
    • §Update management on the
    • team’s progress

    • §Make sure the project is
    • still critical to the organization

    • §Adjust or re-align the
    • project as necessary

    • §Let management know what
    • they can do to remove barriers for the team
  39. Lean six sigma
    1. Core components
    2. Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control
    • Core Components:
    • §Core components:

    • 1.Confirm the nature and
    • extent of the problem.

    • 2.Identify the true causes of
    • the problem.

    • 3.Find solutions that evidence
    • shows are linked to the causes.

    • 4.Establish procedures for
    • maintaining the solutions even after the project is done.


    • Define: 
    • 1. Management team selects projects, team responsibilities, etc
    • 2. Measure - Evaluating the existing measurement system, improve if necessary
    • 3. Analyze - Cause and effect diagrams, scatter plots!
    • 4. Improve - make changes
    • 5. Ensure gains are maintained
Card Set
HINF 461 Final Exam.txt