MIC 541- Lecture 21

  1. Mycoplasma Characteristics
    • Varied shapes = no cell wall
    • Plasma membrane sterols
    • Fried egg colony
    • Smallest free living organism (.1-.3 um)
  2. Size of mycoplasmas
    .1-.3 um (smallest living)
  3. Mycoplasma colony morphology
    fried egg
  4. Cell wall in Mycoplasma is:
  5. gram stain of mycoplasma:
    Does not gram stain
  6. There is Peptidoglycan in Mycoplasmas (T/F)
  7. Mycoplasmas produce sterols (True/False)
  8. What must be supplied in the medium to grow mycoplasmas?
  9. Sterols are composed of:
    • 4 fused rings
    • Hydrocarbon chain branches off of C17
    • Polar hydroxyl group at C3
    • Double bond between C5 and 6
  10. Two componenets of "fried egg colony morphology"
    • Central (imbeded) zone
    • Periphreal (superficial) zone
  11. Mycoplasma are only enclosed in:
    A cell membrane, there is no cell wall
  12. Medically important Mycoplasmataceae
    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
  13. Number of species in Ureaplamsa
  14. number of mycoplasma species
  15. Which mycoplasma species are found only in the respiratory tract?
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  16. Which mycoplasma are found in both respiratory and urogenital tracts?
    M. Hominis, M. Genitalium, U. Urealyticum
  17. Mycoplasma Virulence factors include:
    Terminal protein attachment factor allows it to attach to lung epithelial cells. This inhibits cilia over several weeks time. 
  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes:
    • tracheobronchitis
    • pneumoniae
    • pharyngitis
    • secondary complications (neurologic, pericarditis, haemolytic anemia, arthritis and mucocutaneous lesions)
  19. Mucoplasma genitalium causes:
    Nongonococcal Urethritis, Pelvic Inflmmatory Disease
  20. Mycoplasma Hominis causes:
    pyelonephritis, postpartum fever, systemic infections in immunocomprimised patients
  21. Ureaplasma urealyticum causes:
    NGU, Pyelonephritis, spontaneous abortion and premature birth (chorioamnionitis), prostasis
  22. Mycoplasma pneumonia produces a unique virulence factor called:
    Vacuolating cytotoxin
  23. Vacuolating cytotoxin produces:
    Vacuoles in the mammalian cell are formed. Not known how this is caused.
  24. Mycoplasma general virulence factors
    Tight binding to cells.
  25. Mycoplasma have pili (T/F)
    False, there are receptors but there are no pili
  26. Mycoplasma recognizes and binds to Mammalian cell using:
    P1 adhesin
  27. Mycoplasma Pneumonia causes what types of pneumonia?
    Walking pneumonia ot primary atypical pneumoniae
  28. Atypical refers to:
    asiduous or not abrupt OR not tratable with Penicillin
  29. Pneumoniae epidemics occur how oftern?
    Every 4-8 years
  30. Why is Mycoplasma resistant to Penicillin?
    Mycoplasma do not have a cell wall and penicillin disrupts the cell wall.
  31. Among adults M. pneumoniae accounts for what percent of community aquired pneumoniae?
  32. How many Pneumonia cases in the U.S. each year?
    2 million
  33. Number of pneumonia related hospitilization in the U.S annually?
  34. highest incidence of M. pneumoniae is in what population?
    3-4 year olds
  35. Hospitilization die to M. pneumoniae is high in what group
    Patients under 5 years old
  36. Symptoms of pneumonia
    • Headache
    • Malaise
    • Cough (often spasms)
    • Sore Throat
    • Fever with rash
    • Sometimes chest discomfort
  37. Erythemia Multiforme is called:
    Target lesions
  38. Erythemia Multiforme can be associated with:
    • M. pneumoniae
    • herpes infections
    • streptococcal infection
    • TB
    • And chemical and medicine related reactions
  39. Cold agglutinin titer is most indicative at what time period?
    2-8 weeks after infection, rapidly decolines after 8 weeks and is back to normal
  40. Serum antibody (complement fixation test) is most responsive during what period?
    2-3 and 7-8 weeks, slowly declines thereafter (to week 52)
  41. M. peumoniae is most common amongst which two groups?
    School age choldren and young adults
  42. Early symptoms of M. pneumoniae are:
    Malaise, fever and sore throat
  43. Cough is or is not predominant in M. pneumoniae cases?
    Not predominant
  44. Progressed disease of M. pneumoniae are:
    Nasal symptoms, earache and chest pain
  45. Symptoms of M. pneumoniae
    Headache, Fever, Sore Throat, Cough
  46. Signs of M. pneumoniae
    Sputum, Dullness, Rales
  47. Symptoms or signs present first in M. pneumoniae infection?
    Symptoms at about 0-1 weeks
  48. Sigsn of M. pneumoniae present at what period?
    1-2 weeks and last only just past 2 weeks.
  49. Diagnosis of M. pneumoniae is performed by:
    • Antibody detection
    • PCR on blood
  50. The most accurate test for diagnosing M. pneumoniae is:
  51. Rate of Pelvic inflammatory Disease in 15-44 year old women is changing how?
    Declining since 2000 from around 60-70 thousnad to about 30-40 thousand in U.S (acute). Acute is declining more than chronic, which has stayed around 15 thousand.
  52. Projected cost of plevic inflammatory disease increased from when to when?
    1990 to 2000
  53. The most useful assays types for detecting M. pneumoniae are:
    • Molecular diagnosis ( PCR)
    • Enzyme Assays (detect p1 adhesin)
  54. Which type of diagnositic test is not useful for mycoplasmas?
    Microscopy because there is no cell wall so staining is difficult
  55. Poor tests for Mycoplasma are:
    • Culture (too slow)
    • Complement fixation (poor sensitivity)
    • Cold Agglutinin (poor specificty)-common but not recommended.
  56. Anitbiotic treatment of Mycoplasma can be carried out with:
    Tetracycline and Erythromycin
  57. Mycoplasma cannot be treated with what antibiotic?
  58. Chronif Fatigue Syndrome is associated with:
  59. Mycoplasma may cause what debilitating disease that has previously been without cause?
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  60. L-forms are also called
    • L-phase bacteria
    • L-phase variants
    • cell wall deficient (CWD) bacteria
  61. The two types of L-forms are:
    Unstable and Stable
  62. Unstable L-forms include:
    shperoblasts that can divide and revert to origional morphology
  63. Stable L-forms include:
    those unable to revert to origional bacteria
  64. Characteristics of L-forms:
    • Wall-deficient bacterial variant
    •             Can only produce part of cell wall
    •                          =osmotically fragile
    • No sterols in cell membrane
    • Reproduction stopped by penicillin
  65. L-forms attach to do not attach to Mammalian cells?
    Do attach
  66. L-form cell walls are electron dense (T/F)
  67. L-form looks like:
    bacterial area in blood that apears to have a transparrent butterfly wing with black dots clustered.
  68. Potential cause of Sarcoidosis
  69. Sarcoidosis is:
    chronic formation of nodules in the lungs, liver and lynph glads and salivary glands.
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MIC 541- Lecture 21
MIC 541- Lecture 21, Creighton Pharmacy