The Roaring Twenties/The Great Depression

  1. What were the The Red Scare?
    • The Russian revloution
    • Xenophobia
    • Labor Unrest/Terrorist attacked
  2. Why was the Russian Revolution a cause of the red scare?
    • In nov. 1917 communist took over russia 
    • a small communist party was formed in the United States
    • Creates a fear of communism in the US
  3. What is Xenophobia?
    the fear of anything foreign
  4. Why was Labor unrest/terrorist attacks a cause of the red scare?
    • after WWI, there were 100s of strikes and several mail bombings
    • both were blamed on communist and socialist
  5. What act was allowed to remain in effect?
    Espionage act
  6. What were the Palmer Raids?
    radicals were arrested, put in prison, or deported
  7. What was the quota system?   
    said each country could have the number of immigrants equal to 2% of its population i 1890 census
  8. In the Sacco-Vanzetti case what were the convicted for?
    Itailian immigrants convicted of murder
  9. What was the Liberal response to the Sacco- Vanzetti case?
    they were convicted because they were radical immigrants
  10. What happened to Sacco and Vanzetti?
    despite world-wide protest they were executed
  11. What was the significance of the Sacco Vanzetti case?
    • became the symbol of the red scare and helps end the red scare
  12. What do big business use the red scare for?
    break up unions
  13. What came with the revival of the KKK?
    • the height of the KKK
    • controlled several state governments
    • popular all over the country
    • opposed blacks, immigrants, catholics and jews
  14. What was the Red Summer of 1919?
    over 100 blacks were lynched
  15. What was Marcus Garvery's UNIA (united negro improvement association)?
    Org. to send blacks back to Africa(willingly)
  16. What happened to Marcus Garvey?
    ended up in jail for fraud
  17. What was Harding's Character?
    weaknesses: women, gambling, and liquor
  18. How did Harding feel about big buisness?
  19. The Twenties were a time of ______?
  20. What was the Fordney-McCumber Tariff?
    raises tariff to a new all time high
  21. What was the Department of Commerce?
    set up to help buisness not regulate it
  22. Who was the Ohio Gang?
    Harding's friends who used their government positions for personal gain
  23. Who was Henry M Daugherty?
    head of the Ohio Gang
  24. Who was Charles Forbes?
    • involved in taking money through construction companies
    • ohio gang
  25. What was Teapot Dome(with Albert Fall)?
    • involved the selling oil reserves to private companies
    • ohio gang
  26. How did and when did Harding die?
    died in 1923 if a heart attack
  27. Who ran in the election of 1924?
    • rep- coolidge
    • dem-split
    •   Al Smith-North, Catholic, anti-prohibtion
    •   William McAdoo-south
    •   John W. Davis-compromise canidate
    • Progressives-LaFollette
  28. What were the issues of the election 1924?
    scandals vs. prosperity
  29. What were the results of the election of 1924?
    Coolidge won big
  30. What was Republican Prosperity?
    • Coolidge continued to support big business
    • farmers and labor did not share in prosperity
  31. What happened with Urbanization?
    • 1920-first time in american history that tere are more people living in cites
    • clash of cultures between urban and rural areas
  32. What was the Volstead Act?
    put 18th into effect
  33. What was the problem with prohibtion?
    too hard enforce because nobody obeyed it
  34. What were the ways to by-pass prohibition?
    • homemade
    • bootleggers
    • speakeasies
  35. What were bootleggers?
    people who sold illegal alchol
  36. What were speakeasies?
    illegal bars/nightclubs
  37. What did the organized crime do?
    • supplied alcohol to speakeasies
    • mostly in big cities
    • Al Capone- Kingpin of Chiacago
  38. What was the Elvolution-Scopes Trial(monkey trial)?
    • TN law in 1925 made it illegal to teach evolution
    • Scopes-biology teacher who broke the law by teaching evolution
    • Trial became national event
  39. What were the results of the evolution scopes trial?
    • scopes found guilty
    • made evolution more acceptable
  40. What was the importance of transportation?
    brought Urban ideas to rurual areas
  41. What was the #1 form of transportation?
  42. What were airplanes mainly used for in 20s?
  43. Who was Charles Lindbergh?
    first non-stop solo flight over atlantic in 1927
  44. What was the first Radio station?
  45. What was Jazz largely based on? Who were the main jazz people?
    • african americans
    • Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, George Gershwin
  46. What was the Lost Generation?
    writers who were affected by the war
  47. What was the them of the Lost Generation?
    critized the empty lifestyle of american buisness and society
  48. Who is the most famous writer of the Lost Generation?
    F Scott Fitzgerald the great gatsby
  49. What the Harlem Renaissance? Who was the major writer?
    • black literary movement
    • Langston Hughes
  50. Who was Rudolph Valentino?
    silent movie actor
  51. What was the first talking movie?
    The Jazz Singer
  52. what happend with sports in 20s?
    professional sports became popular
  53. Who ran in the election of 1928?
    • Rep-herbet hoover
    • dem- al smith
    • hoover wins
  54. What were the causes of the great depression?
    • Agricultrial overproduction
    • Industrial overproduction
    • unequal distribution of wealth
    • weak foreign economy
    • easy credit
    • stock market speculation
    • The Crash of stockmarket
  55. What was happening with agricultural overproduction?
    • farmers still producing at WWI levels and prices dropped
    • farmers answers was to produce more
  56. Higher profits did not mean____?
    higher wadges
  57. What happened in 1929?
    top 5% of the pop. earned 25% of the nations income
  58. What was the foreign economy hurt by?
    US tariff policy
  59. What was buying on the margin?
    • you could borrow up to 75% of the stock price
    • people, corp., and banks invested everything they had
    • not enough money on hand to cover debts
  60. What was the problem with stock market?
    money was not invested in real economy
  61. What was the Impact of the Great Depression?
    • People lost all they hand
    • banks and buisness failed
    • 13 million people lost their jobs
    • farm prices dropped 60%
    • Cyclical Effect
    • Psychological effect
  62. What was the Psychological effect of the depression?
    • americans had believed that hard work= success
    • The Panic gave way to despiration and despair
  63. What was Hoover's Character?
    • "Rugged Individulism"
    • each person is responsible for themselves
  64. What were Hoover's choices?
    • voluntary action-country fixes itself
    • government relief
    • Hoover tired voluntary action first, then government relief
  65. What was Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
    raised tarriff to all time high EVERR
  66. What was the reconstruction finance corporation?
    • gave loans to banks, business, and state and local gov.
    • purpose was to stimulate the economy by helping buisness
  67. What was the public works program?
    put people to work on gov. contruction projects
  68. What did Hoover veto?
    some programs that would have provided relief
  69. Why did Hoover fail?
    • acted to slowly
    • did not provide immediate relief
    • congress did not cooperate with him
    • Hoover did more than he was given credit for, but still blamed for depression and was unpopular
    • bonus army
  70. What was the Bonus Army?
    • 1924-Congress voted to give WWI veterans a bonus payment in 1945
    • 1932- 20,000 unemployed veterans marched on Washington and demand they be given money
  71. What was the congress action to Bonus Army?
    they refused
  72. What was Hoover's action to the Bonus Army?
    • offered to pay Veterans way home
    • Hoover has the army force the rest of them home
  73. What was the result of the Bonus Army?
    basically killed Hoover's rep.
  74. Who ran in the election 1932?
    • rep-Hoover 
    • dem- FDR
  75. What were the results of the election of 1932?
    • FDR wins
    • democrats take full control of congress
    • 20th amendment-moves inauguration to Jan. 
    • 21st amendment- repealed prohibtion
  76. Why was FDR successful?
    • fact that depression had reached rock bottom
    • willing to act and act fast
    • gave people confidence
    • FDR's advisors
  77. Who was Frances Perkins?
    • first woman cabinet member
    • sec of labor
  78. What was the Brain Trust?
    college professors who helped write much of the new deal
  79. Who was Harry Hopkins?
    Roosevelt's closest friend and advisors
  80. What were the 100 days?
    first 100 days of FDR's adminstration during which much of the new deal was passed
  81. What were the problems with the first new deal programs?
    • some programs were not effective
    • dust bowl
    • supreme court
    • criticism
  82. What was the dust bowl?
    drought that forced many farmers on the plains to move to california- the okies
  83. What was the Grapes of Wrath?
    story of the Okies and promotes socialism
  84. What was the American Liberty Leauge?
    • said new deal was deal too radical
    • made up of mainly buisnessmen
  85. What did the Socialists say about new deal?
    • not radical enough
    • Upton Sinclair-barley lost governets race in california on end poverty in california
  86. Who was Father Charles Coughlin?
    had radio program that critcized the new deal for not doing enough
  87. Who was Frances Townshed?
    said give the elderly 200 a month, but they had to spend it by the end of the month
  88. Who was Huey Long?
    democratic senator for Louisiana who was the biggest danger to FDR
  89. What did Huey Long's Share the Wealth say?
    • idea was to make every man a king 
    • give every family a house, a car, and 5,000
    • 100% tax on all income over a million dollars
  90. What happened to Huey Long?
    assisinated in 1935
  91. Why was the second new deal passed?
    to deal with problems of the first one
  92. What did FDR support?
  93. What was the CIO?
    • made up of unskilled workers
    • founded by john l lewis
  94. What was the Purpose of the FDR's court packing scheme?
    keep supreme court from declaring anymore of the new deal unconstituonal
  95. What was the plan of the court packing scheme?
    president could appoint an additionl judge for every justice over the age of 70
  96. What was the problem of the court packing scheme?
    congress refused to agree  and people did not support it
  97. What was the result of the court packing scheme?
    supreme court was friendlier to new deal
  98. What brought the end of the new deal?
    • loss of interest
    • Roosevelt Recession
    • Congressional elections of 1938
    • World Problems
  99. What was the Roosevelt Recession?
    • almost as bad as beginnning of depression
    • caused many to question the sucess of new deal
  100. What were the congressional elections of 1938?
    • FDR campaigned against those who opposed the new deal, including many democrats
    • Result- every democrat he campaigned against won
  101. What was the effectiveness of the new deal?
    did not end the depression, but did bring relief
  102. What were the political results of the new deal?
    • increased power of federal gov. and president
    • increased size of bureaucray
    • new democratic coalition- made up of blacks, farmers, cites , labor, women
  103. What is Keynesian Economics?
    • deficit spendeing
    • gov spends more than it takes in
  104. What were the economic results of new deal?
    • Keynesian econ. 
    • socialism brought into econ.
    • growth of labor unions
  105. What were the social changes after the new deal?
    • blacks continue to move north
    • minorites gained some acceptance
    • growth of west
  106. What is the assessment of FDR?
    • US surives another constitunal crisis
    • fundamentally transformed america
Card Set
The Roaring Twenties/The Great Depression