1.  Department of Homeland Security
    Protects against terrorism and responds to natural disasters
  2. Government Corporations
    Organizationally similar to private corporations except that the government rather than stockholders owns them
  3. FTC
    Federal Trade Commission is an agency that regulates business competition, including enforcement of laws against monopolies and the protection of consumers from deceptive trade practices.
  4. FCC
    Federal Communications Commission is an agency that regulates interstate and international radio, television, telephone, telegraph and satellite communications, as well as licensing radio and television stations.
  5. Spoils system
    The method of hiring government employees from among the friends, relatives, and supporters of elected officeholders
  6. Civil service exam
    testing for a government job
  7. Issue network
    Group of political actors that is actively involved with policymaking in a particular issue area
  8. Iron Triangle
    three-sided relationship among government agencies, interest groups, and key members of Congress in which all parties benefit.
  9. Strict Construction
    a doctrine of constitutional interpretation holding that the document should be interpreted narrowly
  10. Loose construction
    doctrine of constitutional interpretation holding that the document should be interpreted broadly
  11. Judicial review
    the power of courts to declare unconstitutional the actions of the other branches and units of government
  12. Federal Court System
    • Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeals (Appellate court)
    • District Courts
  13. Criminal case
    legal dispute dealing with an alleged violation of a penal law
  14. Civil case
    a legal disputed concerning a private conflict between two parties, ie; individuals, corporations, or government agencies
  15. Supreme court justices
    How long do they serve?
    How many are on the bench?
    How many cases do they hear in percentage?
    • Lifetime
    • one chief and 8 associates
    • Hears 60-70 oral arguments which is 1-2% of all cases received.
  16. When the court declares a law unconstitutional what is Congresses pathway to enact that law?
    rewrite the law
  17. How are federal judges selected?  What factors are done when selecting a federal judge?
    The president selects federal judges and the senate confirms them by majority vote.  The president looks for nominees who share their political philosophy.
  18. How does outcome become implemented from a case?
    By relevant government agencies and private parties.
  19. What are subsidies?
    Financial incentive given by government to an individual or a business interest to accomplish a public objective.
  20. Individual income taxes
    largest single source of revenue for the national government. 
  21. Progressive tax
    levy that taxes people earning higher incomes at a higher rate than it does individuals making less money.
  22. Regressive tax
    levy whose burden falls more heavily on lower-income groups than on wealthy taxpayers.
  23. Payroll tax
    second-largest source of federal revenue that is levied on wages and salaries.
  24. Revenues
    How government raises money
  25. Sources of revenue
    Individual income tax, corporate income tax, excise tax
  26. Sources of expenditure
    Healthcare, Social Security, National defense and income security
  27. Tax deductions
    expenditure that can be subtracted from a taxpayer's gross income before figuring the tax owed.
  28. Income security
    domestic spending programs including unemployment insurance, federal retirement (civilian and military) and most welfare programs.
  29. Proportional tax
    a levy that taxes all persons at the same percentage rate, regardless of income.
  30. Sales tax
    levy assessed on the retail sale of taxable items.
  31. National debt
    the accumulated indebtedness of the federal government.
  32. Medicare
    federally funded health insurance program for the elderly.
  33. Medicaid
    federal program designed to provide health insurance coverage to low income persons, people with disabilities, and elderly people who are impoverished.
  34. Social Security
    federal pension and disability insurance program funded through a payroll tax on workers and their employers.
  35. Consumer price index
    Measure of inflation that is based on the changing cost of goods and services
  36. Strains on federal programs
    • Income security - unemployment, federal retirement and most welfare programs
    • Monetary policy - control of the money supply for the purpose of achieving economic goals
    • Federal Reserve Board central banking system of the US with authority to establish banking policies and influence the amount of credit available in the economy.
  37. Welfare reform
    Changing from cash and benefits sufficient to meet basic human needs to move recipients from the welfare rolls to the workforce. Shifted the focus of government assistance to the poor from cash benefits to services designed to help poor people get and keep jobs.
  38. Entitlement programs
    government program providing benefits to all persons qualified to receive them under law.
  39. Diplomatic relations
    a system of official contacts between two nations in which the countries exchange ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel and operate embassies in each other's country.
  40. UN - United Nations
    an international organization founded in 1945 as a diplomatic forum to resolve conflicts among the world's nation.
  41. Cold War
    the period of international tension between the US and the Soviet Union lasting from the late 1940's through the late 1980's
  42. International monetary fund
    international organization created to promote economic stability worldwide.  Provides loans to nations facing economic crises, usually on the condition that they adopt and implement reforms designed to bring long term economic stability.
  43. Preemption policy - military preemption
    Defense policy that declares that the US will attack nations or groups that represent a potential threat to the security of the US.
  44. Non governmental organization
    legally constituted organizations created by natural or legal people that operate independently from any form of government.  Example is Doctors without Borders
  45. North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO
    regional military alliance consisting of the US, Canada, and most of the European democracies.
  46. Nations we do not have relations with
    • Bhutan
    • Cuba
    • Iran
    • North Korea
    • Taiwan
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