mwo chapter 16

  1. setting the stage:hitler's lightning war
    • - during 1930s, Hitler played on the hopes and fears of western democracies.
    • -After conquer Rhineland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, he turned to Poland.
    • -After ww1, allies cut out the polish corridor from Germany territory>give Poland access to the sea.
    • -1939 demand return of polish corridor to germany.
  2. Germany sparks a new war in Europe
    • -stalin/hitler sign 10 year non-agression pact.
    • -excluded from the munich conference, stalin unwilling to join west.
    • -hitler promised territory
    • -secret part of pact- germany/ussr divide poland
    • -also agreed ussr could take finland& baltic states> lithuania,latvia,estonia
  3. germany's lightning attack
    • -after sign pact, hitler move to conquer poland
    • -sept 1,1939 attack>merciless bombing>poland's capital>warsaw
    • -france/GB declare war Sept 3
    • -poland fall before countries can take action
    • -after victory- annexed west 1/2 of poland>large ger. pop.
  4. blitzkrieg
    • -ger. invasion of poland>first to test strategy
    • -"lightning war"
    • -involve fast moving airplane/tanks, follow by massive infantry forces to take enemy by surprise and quickly overwhelm them.
    • - it worked (poland)
  5. the soviets make their move
    • -sept 17, stalin sent troops to east 1/2 poland
    • -tried to annex countries north poland>lithuania,latvia,estonia fall/ finland>resist
    • -nov., stalin sent 1 mil. soviet troops to finland>expect quick victory
    • -finns outnumbered/gunned> winter> soliders on skis.
    • - soviets suffered losses, but won by number of forces>march 1940, stalin force finns to accept surrender terms
  6. The Phony War
    • -after declare war on ger, french/brit. mobilize troops-station:maginot line
    • -maginot line-system of fortifications along france's border with ger.
    • -wait for ger to attack-never did
    • -bored- stared back at one another- get.-siegfried line
    • - ger called it sitzkrieg "sitting war"newspaper "phony war"
    • -apr91940 hit. invade denmark (4hr)/norway(2m)
    • -begin build bases along nor/den coast to attack brit.
  7. The fall of france
    • -may 1940 hit. sweep through netherlands /belgium/luxemburg-strat. to get france
    • -allies attent on those count., hit send large troops throu ardennes
    • -ardennes- forested area in n.france/luxem/ bel
    • -move throu forest- "squeeze between"
    • maginot line
    • -move across france-reach n.e. coast -10days
  8. Rescue at Dunkirk
    • -after reach french coast, ger troops- north to join rest of troops in bel.
    • -end may 1940- trap allies around n.france city lille
    • -allie retreat to dunkirk-freanch port near bel. border
    • -gb.send 850 ships across eng channel to dunkirk
    • -sail back and forth-carry 338,000 to safety
  9. France falls
    • -resist in france crumbles
    • -june 14 ger take paris
    • -french leaders surrender june 22,1940
    • -ger take control n.france
    • -left south to puppet gov.-marshal phillipe petain-french hero from ww1
    • -headquarters of gov.-city of vichy
    • -charles de gaulle- set gov-in-exile in london
    • - commit to reconquer france
    • - organized free frech military forces that battle nazi til france liberated in 1944
  10. The battle of Britian
    • -Winsto churchill- new P.M.
    • -hit. try take over brit.>plan:knock out Royal air force(raf), then land 250,000+on eng shores
    • -sum.1940 luftwaffe>ger. air force bomb brit
    • -!st bomb airfield/craft fact. then cities to break morale
    • -Turn tide in RAF favor: radar-tell speed,#,direction of planes; enigma-code making machine-smuggled into brit
    • -allow decode ger.msg
    • -Raf could launch attacks
    • -avoid RAf attack, Ger day raid to night bombing 0ct 1940
    • -sirens-cit.flock to subways,airraid shelters
    • -contin to may 10 1941
    • -hit call off-focus on medit./e.europe
    • -battle of brit. taught that hit can be blocked
  11. The meditterean and eastern front/ axis forces
    • - turn attent. to medit. and balkans and then to the SOveit union
    • -1st objective in medit.>n.Africa because of mussolini
    • -alliance with ger. but italy neutral. knew had to fight when ger take france
    • -muss. declare war france and brit>move to france
    • -while battle of brit.,order army to attack brit-controlled egypt
    • -egypt suez canal key to oil
    • -within week italy push 60m into egypt, push brit back, then both sides waited
  12. britian stikes back
    • -dec.- strike back
    • -feb 1941 brit swept cross 500m take 130,000 italians prisoner
    • -hit. step in to help-sent ger tank force,afrika korps under Erwin rommel
    • -late march- rommel attack
    • -brit retreat east to tobruk,libya
    • -after fighting for tobruk- brit drive back rommel
    • -mid jan1942 rommel retreat to where started
    • -rommel regroup and seize tobruk-earn "desert fox"
  13. The war in the balkans
    • -other ger generals active in balkans
    • -hitler plan to attack ally ussr sum 1940
    • -balkans>key to plan-want to build bases to attack s.u, makes sure brit no interfere
    • -to prepare,hit spread influence to balkans
    • -1941 persuade bulgaria/ romania/ hungary to join axis powers
    • -yugoslavia and greece reject-pro-brit.
    • -apr. invade both count.yugo(11d)greece(17d)
  14. Hitler invades the soviet union
    • -with balkans controlled, hit could move to operation Barbarossa-plan to invade s.u.
    • -june 22,1941 begin invadsion
    • -s.u. not prepared
    • -ger. push 500m into s.u.
    • -s.u. retreat and burn/destory everything in enemy;s path-scorched earth strat.
    • -sept 8 ger out leningrad under seige
    • -city cut off from rest
    • -hit starve city
    • -bomb destroy food warehouses
    • -near 1 mil die wint 1941-42 yet city no fall
    • -impatient- look to moscow-heart of s.u.
    • -dec nazi advance city outskirts
    • -soviet gen. georgi zhukov counterattack
    • -temp fall, ger in summer uniform retreat
    • -hit order no retreat
    • -dug into 125 miles west
    • -advance worthless cost 500,000 ger lives
  15. The united states aid its allies
    • - most am want u.s not involve
    • -1935-37 congress-series of neutrality acts
    • -laws- made illegal to sell arms/lend money to nations at war
    • -roosevelt knew if allies fall u.s must join
    • -sep 1939 request congress to buy am arms, allies pay and caryy goods to ship
    • -lend-lease act march1941- pres can lend arms/supplies to count. vital to us
    • -hitler order sink cargo ships met
    • -roosevelt/churchill met-alantic charter-joint declaration
    • -upheld free trade among nations and right of ppl to choose own gov.
    • -serve as peace plan for end of ww2
    • -sept 4 - ger u boat fire us destroyer in atlantic
    • -roosevelt order naval commanders to shoot ger u boats on sight-u.s in undeclared naval war with hit.
  16. Setting the stage:japs pacific campaign
    • -jap invasion start 1931
    • -took over manchuria
    • -6 year later swept to heartland of china. chinese resist-war drag on
    • -strain jap economy
    • -to increase resource - look toward euro colonies of s.e. asia
  17. Surprise attack on Pearl harbor
    • -oct 1940 am crack jap secret code used for msg
    • -aware of plans of jap
    • -if jap conquer euro colonies, amcontrolled guam and phili in trouble>am send aid to china resist
    • -jao overrun french indochina>am cut off oil shipments july 1941
    • -jap still contain conquest
    •      - hope to catch euro powers by surprise
    •      -plan attacks on brit/dutch colonies/am outposts at same time
    • -admiral isoroku yamamoto>naval strategist call for attack on u.s fleet in  hawaii
  18. day of infamy
    • -dec 7 1941
    • - us knew there would be attack but not when or where
    • -2hr sunk/damage 19 ships,include8 battle
    • -2,300 am kill
    • -roosevelt request declaration of war against jap
    • -congress accept
    • -same time jap attack, brit colony hk and am controlled guam/wake island bombed
    • -jap also land invasion force on thailand
  19. japanese victories
    • -guam/wake island fall quickly
    • -jan 1942 march to manila
    • -am/fil take defensive on batann penin
    • -fil. gov move to corregidor
    • -3 m fighting jap take bataan apr. corregidor fall next m
    • -seize hk
    • - invade malaya/thailand
    • -feb 1942- seize singapore-strat location on malay penin.
    • -conquer dutch east indies (sumatra,java,borneo,celebes) resource rich
    • -take burma
    • -plan to take india
    • -before conquests, jap try to win support of asain with anticolonist ideas of "East asia for asiatics"
    • -after conquer, made it clear they were the conquerers
  20. bataan death march
    • -jap consider dishonorable to surrender
    • -forced march of +50 miles up the pen in- jap subjected to cruelties
    • -70.000 prisoners started 54,000 survive
  21. The allies strike back
    • -jap seem unbeatable 
    • -am,aust anxious to stike back
    • -am want revenge for PH
    • -apr1942
    • 16 b-25 bombers under james h. Doolittle bomb tokyo/others
    • -did little damage but prove jap vulnerable to attack
  22. The allies turn the tide
    • -doolittles raid raise am morale/shook confidence of jap
    • -jap worry that controlling vast emp spread resources thin
    • -may 1942 am fleet with aust supp. intercept jap force headed for port moresby,new guinea
    • -city house allied air base
    • -control of base put jap in stiking distance
  23. Battle of coral sea
    • --new naval warfare
    • -ships dont fire shots 
    • -airplanes from carriers attacked ships
    • -allies suffer more loss in ships/lives than jap
    • -Victory for allies
    • -stopped jap advance
  24. The battle of midway
    • -midway island-1500m from hawaii-key location of am airfield
    • -allied code breakers>chester nimitz, commander in chief of us pacific  fleet knew map force heading to midway
    • -hoped attack on midway bring out whole us pacific fleet from PH to defend the island
    • -june 4, allow jap to begin assault on island
    • -when jap planes got in air, am planes swoop in to attack the jap fleet
    • -sucess
    • -destroy 332 jap planes, all 4 carriers,1 support ship
    • -yamamoto withdraw
    • -june 7,1942 battle over
  25. An allied offensive
    • -high morale,allies take offensive
    • -war in pacific involve vast distance
    • -douglas macarthur, commander of allied land forces develop plant o solve prob.
    • -believe getting each island is costly and long
    • -wanted to island hop past jap stronghold
    • -after could seize islands that are not well defended but closer to jap
    • -1St target
    • - learn jap build base on island of guadalcanal>soloman islands
    • - allies stike fast before base complete
    • -aug71942- us marines land on island and neighbor island tulagi
    • -little trouble seizing gaud. airfield
    • -battle for control>savage struggle
    • -6m later battle end
    • -lose +24,000 of 36,000 jap abandon island
    • -called in "island of death"
  26. Setting the stage: the holocaust
    • -nazis proposed a new racial order
    • -german ppl(aryans) were the master race
    • -aryan actually is into-euro ppl who migrate into indian subcontinent
    • -claim non aryan ppl inferior particularly jews
    • -holocaust-systematic mass slaughter of jews and other groups inferior to the nazis
  27. Kristallnacht "night of broken glass"
    • -nov 1938 17yo herschel grynszpan-jew from ger visit uncle in paris
    • -recive postcard saying after living in ger for 27 years his father is deported to poland
    • -nov 7, avenge father>shot get diplomat
    • -nazi leaders heard>launch attack on jew
    • -nov 9 storm troopers destroy jew homes,buss,synagogues
    • -murder close to 100 jews
    • -nov 9 known as kristallnacht
    • -mark major step in nazi policy of jew persecution
  28. a flood of refuges
    • -some jews realize that violence against them would increase>fled to other count. 1939
    • -hit conquer territory in which most jews lived
    • -at first, hit favor emigration, it solved his problem of jews
    • -getting other count to admit jews became issue
    • -after admit tons of jews, countries close doors- us,brit, france
  29. isolating the jews
    • -put another plan into effect cause emigration no work
    • -ordered all jews in all countries under his control to move to designated cities
    • -herded jews into ghettos,segregated jew areas
    • -sealed off ghettos with barb wire/stone walls
    • -hope jews would die inside
    • -jews held on
    • -in warsaw,poland jews created resist org. withing ghettos
    • -struggle to keep tradit.
    • -theatures produced plays and concerts
    • -teachers taught lessons in secret schools
    • -scholars kept record so one day ppl find truth
  30. The "final Solution"
    • -hit grew impatient waiting for jews to die 
    • -decide take more direct action
    • -plan> final solution<program of genocide-systematic killing of an entire ppl
    • -to protect national purity-eliminate other races
    • -groups viewed as inferior-"subhumans"
    • -gypsies,homos,poles,russians,insane,disabled, incurably ill
  31. v-1 v-2
    German rockets
  32. The killings begin
    • -swept across e.euro and russ,killing began
    • -ss moved from town to town to kill jews
    • -round up ppl to isolated aread
    • -shot prisoners in pits
    • -not reached by ss round up/taken to concentration camps-ger./poland
    • -hope horrible conditions speeden jew death
    • -work 7 days as slaves
    • -severly beat or killed
    • -meals-bread- potato peelings
  33. The Final stage
    • -"final solution"1942
    • - nazi built extermination camps with gas chambers
    • -auschwitz- largest camp
    • -doctors seperate weak from strong
    • - weak died first-women,children, elderly
    • -told to undress and led to chamber with fake showerhead
    • -cynaide gas/carbon monoxide
    • -killed in minutes
    • -later install crematoriums
  34. The survivors
    • -6 mil jews died
    • -fewer than 4 mil survive
    • -some escape with help of nonjew ppl
    • -hid in homes or help escape to neutral countries
  35. Setting the stage:The allied victory
    • -dec221941 after PH,churchil and roosevelt met>white house-develop a joint war policy
    • -stalin ask them to relieve ger pressure on east
    • -want them to open 2nd front in west
    • -would split get power
    • -churchill agreed 
    • -The allies weaken ger on 2 fronts
  36. The tide turns on two fronts
    • -churchill want brit/us to attack n.Africa and s.euro first
    • -strat. anger stalin>he wanted to open 2nd front in france
    • -s.u. had to hold out against ger alone
    • -brit/u.s send supplies
    • -late 1942- allies turn tide in medit. and e.front
  37. The north african campaign
    • -with tobruk's fall london rommel sent general bernard montgomery "monty" to his troops to control brit forces in
    • -by time he arrive, ger advance into egyptian village,el alamein
    • -monty decide to do huge frontal attack
    • -battle of alamein begin oct 23
    • -nov 4 rommel lose
    • -retreat to west
    • -allies launch operation torch
    • -nov 8 allied force land in morocco/algeria let by dwight eisenhower
    • -monty/eisenhowers armies crush rommels afrika korps may 1943
  38. The battle for stalingrad
    • -ger advance stalled in leningrad and moscow 1941
    • - winter make worse
    • -summer 1942 hit sent 6th army-general friedrich peulus to seize oil fields in causcasus mt.s
    • -army also to get stalingrad-indust center-volga riv.
    • -battle of stalingrad-aug 23 1942
    • -luftwaffe-bombing raids
    • -stalin tell commanders to defend city to death
    • -nov 1942- 90% city ruined
    • -winter set in
    • --nov 19, s.u launch counter
    • - closing in stalingrad, they trapped the get inside and cut off supplies
    • -paulus beg hit retreat but refuse
    • -feb 2,1943 ger troops surrender
    • -ger on defensive
  39. the invasion of italy
    • -as battle of stalingrad rage,stalin urge brit/am to invade france
    • -roosevelt/churchill invade italy 1st
    • -july 10,1943 land in sicily and seize it
    • -toppled mussolini from power
    • -july 25 king victor emmanuel3 had him muss arrested
    • -sept 3 italy surrender
    • -ger retreat north, allies enter rome
    • -fight in italy until ger fell
    • -apr 23,1945 italian resist fighters ambush ger trucks near milan, find muss disguised as ger solider- shot and hung him
  40. The allied home fronts
    • -allied forces fought- home fronts support
    • -war-torn count.>s.u./brit> cit endure hardships
    • -am made crucial contribution to allied war front
    • -produce weapons and equipment
  41. mobilizing for war
    • -to defeat axis powers-means prepare for total war
    • -factories convert peacetime to wartime production
    • -automobile fact. produce tanks
    • -typewriter comp. produce armoe piercing shells
    • -1944 17-18 mil workers-jobs in war indust.
    • -fact.-products for war- shortage consumer goods
    • -am gov ration scarce items
    • -speed limit 35 save gas rubber
    • -inspire ppl to greater effort- gov conduct propaganda campaigns
  42. war limits civil rights
    • -propaganda-negative effect
    • -prejuiduce of jap-am
    • -feb 19,1942 roosevelt issue internment of maps becuase they threat to country
    • -march began to round up aliens and sent to relocation camps
    • -prevent aliens from assisting japs
  43. Victory in europe
    • -in 1942- began secretly buliding force in brit.
    • -plan to launch attack on german-held france across eng channel
  44. The d-day invasion
    • -may 1944 invasion force ready
    • -eisenhower plan attack on coast of normally, northwesern france
    • -ger knew attack coming
    • - keep hitler guessing, set up dummy army with own headquarters and equipment
    • -it appeared to be preparing to attack the french seaport of calais
    • -operation overload-invasion of normandy- largest land and sea attack
    • -began june6,1944 aka d-day
    • -brit/am/french/canadian fight way into beach of normandy
    • -am alone +2700 deaths
    • -allies held beachheads
    • -within month of d-day, 1 mil troops landed
    • -july 25, punch hole in ger defense near saint lo and u.s thridy army-general george patton broke out
    • -allies march to paris
    • -sept, liberated france, belgium,luxembourg. set sight on ger.
  45. the battle of the bulge
    • -move toward ger from west
    • -s.u. advance from east
    • -hit face war on two fronts
    • -he counterattack in west
    • -hope victory split am/brit forces and break up allied supply lines
    • -dec 16, ger break throu am defense along ardennes
    • -push into allied lines gave the campaign its name aka battle of the bulge.
    • -allied push ger back
    • -ger retreat
  46. Germany's unconditional surrender
    • -war drew to close
    • -allies roll across rhine river to ger.
    • -3 mil allied soldiers advance to berlin from sw
    • -6 mil s.u. advance from e
    • -arp 25,1945 soviets surround capital and ppound with fire
    • -hit commit suicide with lover-eva braun
    • -may 7 1945, eisen hower accept unconditional surrender of ger.
    • -roosevelt died apr 12
    • -harry truman-successor
    • -may 9- surrender off. sign in berlin
    • -v-e day- victory in euro day. end after 6 y
  47. Victory in the pacific
    • -allies still fighting jap in pacific
    • -allied victory in guadalcanal stop jap advances
    • -rest of war, jap retreat before counterattack
  48. The japanese in retreat
    • -fall 1944, allies move into jap
    • -oct, land on island leyte,phili.
    • -macarthur order to leave island before their surrender in may 1942,waded ashore at leyte
    • -jap devise plan to halt allied advance
    • -would destroy am fleet,preventing from resupplying
    • -would risk whole jap fleet
    • -oct 23, battle of leyte gulf
    • -jap navy lost
    • -depend on kamikazes, suicide pilots
    • -would sink ships by crashing with their bomb filled planes
    • -march 1945-am take island iwo jima
    • -apr1, us troops move to okinawa.
    • -battle end, jap lost +100,000 troops
    • -am lose 12,000
  49. The japanese surrender
    • -next stop japan
    • -trumans advisors inform him that invasion of jap homeland risk half a million live
    • - had to make decision to use a-bomb
    • -it would bring quick end to war
    • -developed by top secret manhattan project>leslie groves,j. robert oppenheimer
    • -1st bomb explodein new mex july 16,1945
    • -he warn jap that unless they surrender they would expect "rain of ruin fromt eh air"
    • -no reply
    • -aug 6 1945, us bomb hiroshima 
    • -aug 9,2nd bomb>nagasaki
    • -jap surrender to macarthur sept 2
    • -ceremony took place on battleship missouri in tokyo bay
  50. devastation in europe
    • -2/3 deaths in ww2 civilians
    • -hundreds of cities in rubble
    • -ground war destroy countryside
    • -displaced persons- homeless
  51. a harvest of destruction
    • -paris,rome,brussels- undamaged
    • -warsaw and london destoryed
    • -allied bobs destroy 95% of central area of berlin
    • -many had no water,electricity, food
    • -lived in destroyed homes
    • -many took to roads
    • -displaced people include survivors of concentration, prisoners of war, and refugees found themselves int he wrong count. when treaties changed borders
    • -
  52. Misery continues after the war
    • -fighting ravage euro countryside
    • -agriculture disrupted
    • -most men serve in military
    • -women work in war product.
    • -few remain to plant
    • -transportation destroyed>harvests did not reach cities
    • -famine and disease
    • -winter>no shoes/coats
  53. Postwar gov and politics
    • -euro blamed leaders for aftermath
    • -prewar gov returned>bel,holland,den.,norway
    • -older leadership return-italy,ger,france
    • -hit brought ger to ruins,muss led italy to defeat, vichy gov collab with nazis<old leadership in disgrace
    • -itlay/france resist fighters- comm
    • -after war, comm promise change
    • -membership skyrocket>france/italy
    • -to speed up plitical takeover, comm stage violent strikes
    • -alarmed, french and italians react by voting for anti-comm
    • -comm membership decline
    • -decline more as france and italy recover
  54. The nuremburg trial
    • -issues with war crimes
    • -1945/46 international military tribunal put nazi war criminals on trial in nuremburg,ger 
    • -1st of trails- 22 nazi leaders charged for waging war of aggression and accuse of commiting crimes against humanity
    • -hitler, ss chief heinrich himmler , minister of prop. joseph gobbles suicide before trails
    • -hormann goring,rudolf hess,and others face charges
    • -hess guilty>life to prison
    • -goring>death but cheated by suicide
    • -ten other hanged 
    • -concentration camp dachau
  55. occupied japan
    • -macarthur took charge of u.s occupation of jap
    • -determined to be fair
    • -began process of demilitarization- disbanding jap forces
    • -leave only small police force
    • -bring war criminal to trial
    • -hideki toko and 6 others condemn to hang
    • -turn to democratization, process of creating gov elected by ppl
    • -feb drew up consti.
    • -change emp to constitutional monarchy
    • -jap accept
    • -start may 3.1947
    • -told not to revive economy
    • was instructed to broaden land ownership and increase participation of workers and farmers in the new democracy
    • -put forth plan with absentee landlords and huge estates to sell land to gov.
    • -gov sold land to tenant farmers for reasonable price
    • -reforms push by macarthur gave workers right to create independant labor unions
  56. Occupation brings deep chnages
    • -new gov- emo no divine
    • -emperor>figurehead-symbol of jap
    • -new consti. guarantee real political power in map rested in ppl
    • -the ppl elect 2 house parliament>the diet
    • -all over 20 right to vote
    • -gov led by pm chosen by diet
    • -bill of rights protect rights of ppl
    • -article 9- jap could no longer make war, could fight only if attacked
    • -sept 1951-u.s and 47 other sign peace treaty with jap
    • -off. end war
    • -6m later u.s occupation in jap over
    • -no more armed forcces- jap agreed continuing us military presence to protect country
Card Set
mwo chapter 16
World War 2