Lecture 18 Organs of the endoderm

  1. Deficiency in this hormone causes diabetes
  2. when diabetes is present, which endoderm derived organ malfunctioned?
  3. Diabetes is caused by malfunction of which pancreatic cell type?
    beta cells
  4. What cells in the pancreas secrete insulin?
    beta cells
  5. Whats the order of the endoderm derived organs starting with the mouth and ending at the anus?
    • mouth:
    • -pharynx
    • -trachea/lung
    • -esophagus
    • -stomach (foregut)
    • -smal intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas (midgut)
    • -colon(hindgut)
    • anus
  6. what organ is part of foregut?
  7. what organs are part of midgut?
    small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
  8. What organs are in the hind gut?
  9. Which gut is the pancreas part of?
  10. What is the gut made of?
    • -endoderm on the inside (epithelial lining)¬†
    • - layer of mesoderm on the outside
  11. Where does the outside layer of mesoderm on the gut come from?
    Lateral plate mesoderm
  12. What is pancreas made of(what did she talk about?)
    acini(leaves) and Islets of Lagerhans (inside acini)
  13. what type of cells are the islets of lagerhans?
    endocrine cells
  14. what do exocrine cells produce?
    digestive juices which contain digestive enzymes
  15. What type of cells are Beta cells?
    endocrine cells
  16. What are insulin producing cells made from?
    ES cells
  17. What is STZ?
    streptozoan. It is a B cell toxin
  18. What does insulin do?
    It causes cells to absorb glucose so glucose is cleared from blood
  19. What is used to have human ES cells in mice without rejection?
    Use an immune system compromised mouse. SCID(severe combined immune deficient)
  20. What is the conclusion from putting human ES cells in mice?
    hES cell-derived insulin producing cells can rescue blood glucose levels in a mouse diabetes model
  21. How to make insulin producing cells from ES cells?
    • 1. ES cells from epiblast¬†
    • -makers : Nanog, Oct 4, Sox2
    • 2. trick ES cells into becoming ME (mesendoderm cells) by using nodal and wnt.
  22. whats an endoderm specifying growth factor?
  23. What does the LMP (lateral plate mesoderm become)? D/V patterning
    • -somatic mesoderm which become limb buds in Dorsal region
    • - splanchnic which becomes smooth muscle(wraps around gut) in the Ventral region
  24. What happens in A/P patterning?
    a gradient of fgf, wnt and RA(retinoic acid) is formed. goes from posterior to anterior.
  25. what are the transcription factors and gene we talked about in A/P patterning?
    cdx, pdx1, sox2
  26. what do future beta cells express?
  27. What separates the LPM into 2 regions?
  28. what is necessary for pancreatic development?
  29. (pancreas development)
    What does the notochord express and what does that do?
    Expresses fgf/ activin. these repress shh. This becomes the dorsal pancreatic bud
  30. (pancreas development)
    What does the cardiac tissue express and what does it do?
    expresses shh which makes the ventral region turn into the ventral pancreatic bud
  31. How does lateral inhibition happen? 
    one mesenchymal cell expresses Ngn3 which activates expression of Dl (ligand). Dl signaling represses Ngn3 in neighboring cells
Card Set
Lecture 18 Organs of the endoderm