Practical 1

  1. Where is simple epithelium found?
    In areas where you need transport across membrane rapidly & in a protected area
  2. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Lining of lungs
    • Kidneys
    • were we have diffusion gradient
  3. Mesothelium
    Simple Squamous E. lining in body cavity
  4. Endothelium
    • Lining in blood vessels &
    • Heart
  5. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    Tubules of kidneys
  6. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    Small intestine
  7. Microvilli
    • Found in SCE
    • increase surface and facilitates absorbtion
  8. Cilia
    • Found in Respiratory System in SCE
    • Moves mucous out of system
  9. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  10. Pseodostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Nasal Mucosa
    • Lining upper respiratory tract
    • lining large excretory ducts of large glands
    • Lining ducts of male reproductive system
  11. Transitional Epithelium
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Ureters
  12. Transitional Epithelium
    how to recognize it:
    • Transions from Stratified S.E. to Columnar
    • Basal layer cells are cuboidal &
    • Columnar shaped
    • Superficial layer of cell round
    • 2 Nuclei
    • Stretches and becomes thinner
  13. 3 Kinds of Muscle Tissue
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  14. Skeletal Muscle
    Myosatellite cells:
    • 1st - Striations (Contractive proteins)
    • 2nd - Multinucleate ** many**
    •  --pushed against outer membran of cell
    • 3rd - Tube like cells w. parallel membranes

    Myoblast fused together to form a muscle cell

    • Myosatellite- dont fused
    • Stay to repair damage in skeletal cells

  15. Smooth Muscle (visceral muscle)
    • 1st - No Striations
    • 2nd - ONE central nucleus per cell
    • 3rd - Has tapered ends

    • Locations:
    • -blood vessels
    • -Urinary bladder
    • -Entire digestive tract
  16. Cardiac Muscle
    • 1st - Faint Striations
    • 2nd - Single, centrally located nucleus per cell
    • 3rd - Cell Branch
    • 4th - Intercalated Discs
  17. Intercalated discs
    • Structures strings that connect adjacent cells during contrations
    • prevent from pulling apart
  18. Myogram
    A graph which represents the physical movement made by the skeletal muscle when stimulated.
  19. Gastrocnemium Muscle
    Calf muscle
  20. Threshold level
    is required to initiate contraction of the cell.
  21. Subthreshold Stimulus (subliminal stimulus)
    if cell is stimulated at any level below the threshold level.

    CEll does not respond
  22. Threshold Stimulus ( Liminal stimulus)
    Cell has been stimulated to at any level equal or above threshold level

    cell contracts
  23. Motor units
    each consist of a nerve, which supplies on or more skeletal muscle fibers
  24. Simple Twitch
    a quick jerky contraction in response to a single stimulus
  25. Latent Period
    The time while the muscle sits there after stimulus has occurred.
  26. Contraction Period
    The period while the muscle responds to the stimulus by shortening and thickening
  27. Relaxation Period
    The time period while muscle returns to its original size and shape
  28. Graded Response
    is created by applying a series of electrical stimuli to the gastrocnemium muscle.

    voltage is increased by each successive stimulus
  29. Treppe
    • is Created by applying a series of electrical stimuli to the gastrocnemius muscle
    • Stimulus are equal strength
  30. Work Done
    is a reflection of the strength of the muslce
  31. Length tension relationship
    • Same voltage, equal strength and is high enough to reach threshold level of all motor units.
    • Increasing length of muscle, increases the tension w/in the muscle and the muscle responds with a more forceful contration
  32. Unfused Tetany
    • created by applying a serious of equal strength stimuli to the muscle.
    • partially relaxes between each contraction
  33. Fused Tetany ans summation
    • created by applying a series of equal strength stimuli to muscle. Rate 35-50 stimuli/second
    • No relaxation/same voltage
  34. Motor Point
    certain sensitive spots that elicit a much greater response
  35. Flexor digitorum superficialis
    located on the anterior surface of the forearm and
Card Set
Practical 1
lab practical