Italian 42B: Issues

  1. enemy aliens
    title given to italians and italian americans living in US during WWII (US fighting against Italy)subject to raids, relocation, arrest, internment, etc.
  2. Executive Order 9066
    issued by FDR during WWII (Feb 19, 1942) authorizing secretary of war to prescribe certain areas of US as military zones-allowed for relocation of japanese, italians to internment camps
  3. Ellis Island as internment camp
    ironic- once a place that represented freedom, the American Dream, new life free from oppression
  4. US POW camps for Italians
    some joined US service units to promote the Allied war effort (some refused to betray Italy/Fascism) "coddling of prisoners"
  5. Sunnyside Plantation (Arkansas)
    cotton plantation whose owner (Corbin) recruited Italian immigrants to work, attracted them with promises of land, but exploited them brutally
  6. Tontitown
    town settled by Italian imms led by their Catholic priest (Bandini) who began their lives in America on Sunnyside plantation-gardens, orchards, vineyards,
  7. Italian Swiss Colony
    founded by Pietro Rossi in 1881in Sonoma Valley world renown for its champagne, huge wine producer
  8. gold rush
    attracted many IT's westward-didn't necessarily become miners, but merchants, restaurant owners, fishermen
  9. 1906 San Francisco earthquake
    April 18, 1906 - right after Caruso performed much of the city destroyed by the tremors, resulting fires
  10. Foreign Anti-Contract Labor Act 1885
    banned the importation and migration of foreigners under contract to perform labor in the US-anti-immigrant sentiment (loss of work for native laborers)
  11. contract labor and the padrone system
    network of business relationships to meet demand in America for cheap, unskilled labor-acted as middlemen btwn imms and employers, lied to many imms about conditions in US
  12. steamship passage/steerage
    usually paid for by padrone system/American employer to entice foreign laborers-then added to their debt once they arrived
  13. company stores/commissary system
    instead of being paid in American dollars, immigrant laborers paid in company store credit, so their entire salary went back to the plantation-owners hiked up prices dramatically
  14. inter-foreign tension in US
    between blacks and italians, italians and irish, etc.all competing for the same low-wage, unskilled jobs
  15. American attitudes toward Northern Italians
    thought of as more desirable, better educated, "whiter"taller in stature, more dignified- represented elite italian culture
  16. American attitudes toward Southern Italians
    thought of as less desirable, uneducateddark skin, short in stature, peasant
  17. fears of cheap labor, Catholic church
    • 1) feared that Italians willing to work for nearly nothing would ruin American wages, steal jobs from citizens
    • 2) allegiance to pope/church would keep them from being true patriots
  18. lynchings
    ITs were targets mostly in South*11 lynched in New Orleans after being falsely accused of Mafia activity, acquitted of murdering David Hennessy
  19. migration as Italian safety valve
    discontented, potentially riotous populations in Italy moved to the US to escape Italian state's deteriorationIT anarchists in American East moving westward
  20. prohibition
    legal act prohibiting manufacture, transportation, sale of alcohol Mafia makes huge sums thru bootlegging
  21. CA wine, dairy, vegetable industries
    since climate, terrain of CA very similar to IT & there was available land, Italian imms were very successful in these industriesfood suppliers, merchants
  22. bootlegging
    made a large segment of immigrant population (otherwise law abiding citizens) "criminals"many IT's continue to make their own wines in their homes- large part of IT gastronomy/culture
  23. 18th Amendment
    prohibition of alcoholic beverages in USratified January 16, 1919
  24. 19th Amendment
    gives women the right to vote (champions: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton)ratified August 18, 1920
Card Set
Italian 42B: Issues