Cardiovacular system

  1. narrowing of the of the coronary arteries causes oxygen deprivation to the myocardium that can lead death of muscle tissue (myocardial infarction)

    causative agent is usually fatty material build-up on inner arterial wall (atherosclerosis – pp.273-274)

    radiographic appearance – look for narrowing (stenosis) of the affected vessel(s) see p 263 fig 7-17-18 or actual plaque build-up (increased density, remember it looks whitish) p. 261 fig 7-15. Best seen on MDCT - multidetector, 64 slice CT or 3D MRA(angiography)

    the use of stents to re-expand the narrowing is now a common interventional radiographic procedure
    Coronary heart disease (CAD)
  2. inability of the heart to adequately pump 

    left sided failure most common – radiographic appearance is cardiomegaly - see p. 284 fig 7-20
    echocardiography is the preferred imaging modality – can better assess heart’s pumping capability
    Congestive heart failure
  3. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in pulmonary tissue generally due increased pulmonary venous pressure
    Pulmonary edema
  4. early sign of fluid is seen by the presence of Kerley B lines

    horizonatal whitish lines imbedded in the lung tissue
    Pulmonary edema
  5. advanced stage – look for the classic butterfly or bat –wing pattern
    Pulmonary edema
  6. Long standing high blood pressure (hypertension see p. 266) causes narrowing of systemic blood vessels forcing the left ventricle to work harder
    Hypertensive heart disease
  7. Left ventricle becomes hypertropohic (increased size)

    Radiographic appearance – increased left ventricle size along with abnormal appearance of the aorta
    Hypertensive heart disease
  8. 1. atrial septal defect – right ventricle enlargement
    2. ventricular septal defect – left atrium and ventricle enlargement
    3. patent ductus arterious – prominent aorta with left atrium and ventricle enlargement
    Congenital heart disease
  9. Blood clot(s) involving the lower extremities –

    Major source of potentially fatal pulmonary embolism

    Duplex color Doppler ultrasound is the modality of choice
    Deep venous thrombosis
Card Set
Cardiovacular system