Thinking and intelligence

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  1. Cognition
    think, know, perceive, learn, and mem, also the contents of these processes
  2. Intelligence

    capacity to acquire   knowledge, reason, and solve problems effectively
  3. is Conscious Thought?
    90% is non-conscious
  4. Subconscious processes
    Outside of conscious awareness
  5. Non-conscious processes are:
    • Outside of awareness, Outside of control
    • ex: Classical conditioning, priming, procedural learning
  6. What Are the Components of Thought?
    • brain uses senses, emotions, mem info to create/manipulate mental representations
    • Ex: concepts, images, schemas, and scripts
  7. What Are Concepts?
    reps of categories of items/ideas, bc experiences/learning

    • Natural concepts
    • rep objects/events

    Artificial concepts = rules
  8. Schema
    A knowledge cluster provides expectations of topics, events, objects, people, and situations
  9. Thinking uses
    ID Prob=select strategy=find Solution=Test Solution
  10. Algorithms (Problem Solving Strategies)
    guarantee a correct outcome if applied correctly
  11. Heuristics
    Short cut to solve complex mental tasks
  12. Useful heuristics include:
    • Work backward
    • Search for analogies
    • Break prob n2 smaller probs
  13. Sunk Costs
    Investing money/time n2 a project not likely to succeed
  14. Hindsight Bias
    “I knew it all the time”
  15. Confirmation Bias
    seek info that supports pre-existing thoughts/theories
  16. Functional fixedness
    Inability to perceive a new use for object associated with different purpose
  17. Priming
    and the Dunker Candle Problem
    Participants randomly assigned to solve prob
  18. The Obstacle of Self Imposed Limitations

    • Past
    • experiences

    • Failure
    • to consider alternative possibilities
Card Set
Thinking and intelligence
chap 8
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