1. Acid
    chemical compound that releases H+ to a solution
  2. polar molecule
    an uneven distribution of charge
  3. solvent
    the dissolving agent
  4. aqueous solution
    when water is the solvent
  5. evaporative cooling
    body becomes cooler as water evaporates from it
  6. solution
    a liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more subtances
  7. solute
    substance that is dissolved
  8. heat
    amount of energy associated w/ the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of  matter
  9. cohesion
    tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
  10. chemical reaction
    process leading to chemical changes in matter, involving the making/breaking of chemical bonds
  11. Hydrogen bond
    weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive H- atom from one polar molecule is attached to the partially negative atom in another molecule
  12. base
    compound that accepts H+ and removes them from the solution
  13. ionic bond
    the attraction b/w oppositely charged ions (transfer)
  14. covalent bond
    two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons; strongest bonds
  15. ions
    atoms/molecules that are electrically charged as a result of gaining/losing electrons
  16. buffer
    substance that minimize changes in pH by accepting H+ when that ion is in excess and donation H+ when it is depleted
  17. temperature
    measures the intensity of heat (average speed of molecules)
  18. pH scale
    measure of Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
  19. radioactive isotope
    nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy
  20. electrons
    • -only one directly involved in chemical activity
    • -farther away electron is from nucleus, greater the energy
    • -# of electrons in outermost shell determines the chemical properties of the atom
  21. isotopes
    an element that has the same # of protons and electrons, but different # of neutrons (differ in mass)
  22. mass number
    protons + neutrons
  23. atomic number
    # of protons
  24. atom
    smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
  25. compound
    substance that contains 2+ elements
  26. element
    a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions
  27. Surface tension
    measures how difficult it is to stretch/break surface of a liquid
  28. mass
    measure of the amount of material in an object
  29. 3 types of chemical bonds
    • ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  30. matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  31. non polar molecule
    even distribution of charge
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