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  1. What are the two substances found in the epidermis
    keratin and melanin
  2. is a protein found in the stratum corneum layer that makes the epidermis tough and impenetrable
  3. receptors that respond to mechanical pressure located at the ends of neurons to detect deep pressure and vibrations
  4. what are the 3 main types of glands within the integumentary system
    • sebaceous glands
    • sudoriferous glands
    • ceruminous glands
  5. what are the two main types of sudoriferous glands
    • eccrine
    • apocrine
  6. glands that secrete ear wax (cerumen)
    ceruminous glands
  7. Individual bone cells
  8. cells that build up or repair bone tissue
  9. cells that break down bone tissue and help release stored minerals
  10. How many bones are in the human body?
    • 206
    • 80- axial
    • 126 appendicular skeleton
  11. Fibers arrange concentrically around an opening
    Functions as sphincter to close a passageway or opening. What type of pattern of muscle is this?
  12. triangular muscle with common attachment site
    direction of pull can be changed
    does not pull as hard as an equal-sized parallel muscle. what is the pattern of muscle?
  13. fascicles are parallel to the long axis of the muscle. The body of the muscle increases in diameter with contraction. It is a high endurance muscle. but is not very strong. Name this pattern of muscle?
  14. name the muscle pattern where the muscle body has one or more tendons;
    the fascicles are at an oblique angle to the tendon.
  15. This type of muscle pattern fiber on the same side of the tendon
  16. these have muscle fibers on bonth sides of the tendon
  17. these muscles have tendons that branch within the muscle
  18. a theory that explains muscular contractions. It states that if there is enough ATP, the myosin will attach to the actin and make the actin "slide" over each other, thus pulling the muscle fibers toward the center
    sliding filament theory
  19. tendons attach muscle to
  20. thin myofilaments
  21. thick myofilaments
  22. one motor neuron, neuro muscular junctions, and the muscle fibers it innervates
    motor unit
  23. The brain consists of 4 main parts: They are
    • cerebrum
    • cerebellum
    • diencephalon
    • brain stem
  24. 3 layers that surround and protect the CNS are called
  25. the thickest and most external layer of the the meninges
    dura mater
  26. the web-like and provides space for the cerebrospinal fluid to circulate and cushion support of the meninges is the
    arachnoid layer
  27. the softer layer and innermost layer of the meninges and is the layer that has vascular and supplies nutrients to the brain
    pia mater layer
  28. this is the superior part of the brain, making up 81% of the total brain mass.
  29. which side of the cerebrum is creativity and contains the sensory and motor pathways for the left side of body
    right hemisphere
  30. which side of the cerebrum is logic, science, languages, and verbal ideas, contains sensory and motor pathways for the right side of the body
    left hemisphere
  31. this part of the brain controls muscle tone, coordinates skeletal muscles and balance, and controls fine and gross motor movements
  32. provides the relay and switching cneters for some sensory and motor pathways and for control of visceral activities. contains thalamus and hypothalamus
  33. contains 3 part midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
  34. this area of the brain is responsible for visual and auditory reflexes
  35. this section of the brain stem is the center for autonomic respiration and acts as  a bridge from the spine the rest of the brain.
  36. this area is the cardiac control center, vasomotor center, and respiratory center
    medulla oblongata
  37. the PNS contains all other nerves except
    the brain and spinal cord (cranial nerves and spinal nerves)
  38. the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls skeletal muscles and their contractions
    somatic nervous system
  39. PNS that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscles, internal organs and glands
    autonomic nervous system
  40. name the cranial nerves
    • OH-------olfactory
    • OH-------optic
    • Oh-------oculomotor
    • TO-------trochlear
    • Touch----Trigeminal
    • AND------abducens
    • Feel------facial
    • Very------vestibulochochlear
    • Good-----glossophayngeal
    • Vagina---Vagus
    • Ah--------accessory
    • Ha---------hypoglossal
  41. this is the smallest of the cranial nerves. its sensory and motor fibers supply the superior oblique muscles for oblique eye movements
    trochlear iv
  42. this is the largest of the cranial nerves. supplies the tissues of the face, eyes, nasal cavity, and mouth. sensory fibers conduct impulses for touch, heat , cold, and pain
    trigeminal v
  43. the sensory and motor fibers of this nerve supply the lateral rectus muscles for lateral eye movements
    abducens nerve vi
  44. this nerve supplies most of the visceral organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
    vagus nerve x
  45. motor fibers supply the SCM, traps, and swallowing muscles
    Accessory xi
  46. motor fibers supply muscles of the tongue
    hypoglossal nerve xiii
  47. helps our body protect itself from over-stretching.
    muscle spindles
  48. helps us from over contracting by sending signals to the inter neurons in spinal cord
    gogli tendon organs
  49. quick, involuntary response to a stimulus. like blinking, breathing and salivation
    reflex arc
  50. produces hormone melatonin
    pineal gland
  51. secrets two hormones: thyroxin and thyrocalcitonin
    thyroid gland
  52. decreases the level of calcium ions in the blood by causing the calcium to be absorbed by bone
  53. this is a condition in which there is a lack of thyroxin in the blood . in growth years results in mental retardation. after growth years, results in low metabolic rate, depression, fatigue, weight gain.
  54. condition characterized by irritability, weight loss, enlarged thyroid gland and bulging eyes
  55. increases blood calcium by causing he release of calcium from bone
    parathyroid gland
  56. smallest veins that lead from capillaries to veins
  57. microscopic blood vessels where the exchange of oxygen and other nutrients into the tissue takes place
  58. what are the 4 large blood vessels the supply the heart
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • pulmonary artery
    • pulmonary veins
  59. what are the 2 main veins that collect blood from the body and channel it to the heart
    superior and inferior vena cava
  60. the large blood vessel that channels blood away form the heart to the lungs carry deoxygenated blood is the
    pulmonary artery
  61. the large blood vessel that channel blood from the lungs to the heart
    pulmonary veins
  62. what are the 4 valves that keep blood flowing in the proper direction through the heart
    • right AV valve (aka: tricuspid valve)
    • left AV valve (aka: bicuspid valve)
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
    • aortic semilunar valve
  63. valve situated between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
    pulmonary semilunar valve
  64. valve situated between the left ventricle and the aorta
    aortic semilunar valve
  65. cardiac blood flow
    • R heart gets old oxygen blood from body gives to lungs.
    • L  heart gets new oxygen blood gives to body
    • deoygenated blood goes from body to vena cavas into right atrium
    • from AV valve to R ventricle, through
    • pulmonary artery to lungs
    • oxygenated blood from lungs through pulmonary veins to left atrium, through mitral valve, into left ventricle to aorta from aorta to body.
  66. circulation of the blood from heart to lungs and back to heart
    pulmonary circulation
  67. from heart to the rest of the body and back
    systemic circulation
  68. main veins that return blood to the heart
    vena cavas
  69. the artery leading form the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
    pulmonary artery
  70. returns blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
    pulmonary vein
  71. valve between right atrium and right ventricle
    tricuspid or R AV valve
  72. valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
    mitral or bicuspid or aka Left AV valve
  73. valve between the left ventricle and aorta
    aortic semilunar vlave
  74. pulmonary circulation
    • vena cava
    • R Atrium
    • Tricuspid valve
    • R ventricle
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
    • pulmonary artery
    • lungs
    • pulmonary vein
    • left atrium
    • bicuspid
    • left ventricle
    • aortic semi-lunar valve
    • aorta
    • body
  75. systemic circulation
    • aorta
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • vena
  76. this condition is due to calcium deposits on the walls of arteries
  77. condition in which fatty material becomes deposited on the walls of arteries
  78. recognize antigens and attack foreign cells to reduce threats by pathogens
    t lymphocytes
  79. contain antigen receptors that respond to one particular antigen and cause the production of antibodies to respond to that particular antigen
    b lymphocytes
  80. kills wide variety of infected or cancerous cells and respond to multiple antigens
    natural killers cells
  81. located at the very back of nose at hte nasopharynx. provides defense against inhaled substances.
  82. these are small lymphatic organs located in the back of throat there are 3 name them.
    • tonsils:
    • pharyngeal
    • palatine
    • lingual
  83. organ located just under the diaphragm posterior and lateral to the stomach. contains macrophages that engulf worn out blood cells and bacteria.
  84. urine formation
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  85. filtration of fluid out of capillaries and into the nephron. What is this called and The driving force for this process is what
    • glomerular filtraiton
    • blood pressure
  86. is the reabsorption of chemicals from the nephron back to the blood
    tubular reabsorption
  87. tubes that transfer urine from the kidneys to the bladder
  88. canal that allows for transfer of urine from the bladder for excretion
  89. what are the 3 processes of respiration
    • ventilation
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  90. normal amount of air inhaled and exhaled in quiet breathing at 500ml
    tidal volume
  91. maximum volume of air inhaled and exhaled forced breathing which is about 5000ml
    vital capacity
  92. the exchange of gases getween the alveoli and the blood is
    external respiration
  93. the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells is
    internal respiration
  94. name the upper, middle, and lower portion of the stomach
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  95. organ the have pockets of endocrine cells called the islets of langerhans produce glucagons and insulin hormones that regulate blood sugar levels and aids in digestion of fats and proteins
  96. Gonads
    • male and female reproductive organs
    • ovaries and testes
  97. a cell with half the number of chromosomes.
  98. mature male gamete that develops in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
  99. saclike accessory glands located posterior to the urinary bladder in the male that provide nourishment for sperm
    seminal vesicle
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