Pharm Midterm Questions

  1. Non-polar drugs are transported in the blood bound to:
    Serum Albumin
  2. An enzyme family which adds OH groups to drugs:
    Cytochrome P-450
  3. The enzyme which adds sugar molecules on to drugs:
    Glucuronyl transferase
  4. The specific sugar added by the above enzyme:
    Glucuronic acid
  5. This enzyme also works on ____, a metabolic product of heme
  6. Heroin is a schedule ___ drug
  7. A molecule which increases the risk of birth defects is called a:
  8. Most drugs exist in two forms:
    • NH2 and NH3+
    • Amine & Ammonium
  9. NH2 groups are called_______ while NH3+ groups are called __________

  10. The first group (Amine) can be converted into the second group (Ammonium) by the addition of:
    Acid (H+)
  11. Which form (amine vs ammonium) will most readily cross the blood brain barrier:
  12. Which form is sometimes referred to as a free base?
  13. which form is present in morphine sulfate?
  14. Benzocaine has a pKa = 2.5. which form will it be in while in blood?
  15. Novocaine has a pKa= 9.0. Will it readily pass through nerve membranes?
    No, it will not because it is in the ammonium form
  16. Type of receptor at the sympathetic ganglion:
  17. Neurotransmitter at the sympathetic ganglion:
    Aceytlcholine +
  18. Action of AcH is terminated by:
  19. Sympathetic "neurotransmitter" released by adrenal gland:
  20. action of epinephrine is terminated by the enzyme:
    monoamine oxidase
  21. The safety of a drug is measured by a number called the :
    Therapeutic Index
  22. Therapeutic Index is equal to the ratio:
    LD50/ ED50
  23. If the TI is 3, the drug is _____ a relatively safe drug
    is not
  24. A drug used to decrease saliva and GI motility before an operation:
  25. Atropine can cause an ________ heart rate
  26. ______ is a drug for COPD that contains 2 drugs, _____ which acts as an adrenergic agonist and ____ an anticholinergic drug
    Combivent & Albuterol & Atrovent
  27. The drug of choice in the treatment of anaphylactic shock:
  28. The common adrenergic drug for "rescuing" an asthma attack:
  29. Albuterol works as an ______ of _____ receptors.

    Beta 2
  30. The common long-acting adrenergic asthma med _____ is not useful for asthma attacks because:

    It has an onset of 45 minutes
  31. The primary steroid for treating asthma:
  32. ____ contains the above steroid (Flovent) combined with ______

  33. Advair is most commonly administered by:
    Dry Powder Inhaler
  34. Terbutaline is used for the treatment of:
    Premature Parturition
  35. BPH is commonly treated with the drug:
    Cardura or Flomax
  36. Montelukast (Singulair) is a drug used to inhibit the formation of inflammatory _____ molecules and is commonly used in the treatment of asthma.
  37. General name for adrenergic drugs which cannot be taken orally:
  38. A schedule II drug other than Methylphenidate used to treat ADHD:
    Amphetamine (Adderall)
  39. Two common antihypertensive drugs, ____ and ____ slow down the heart rate by acting as ____ of the ____ receptors
    Metoprolol & Atenolol

    Antagonists & Beta 1
  40. Parkinsons disease occurs when there is a relative lack of _______ in the _____ of the brain
    Dopamine & striatum
  41. Parkinson's is commonly treated with a combination drug which contains ______ and ______. The latter drug acts to inhibit the enzyme:
    Levodopa & Carbidopa & DOPA decarboxylase
  42. A second common drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is _________ which acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme _______
    Selegiline & Type B monoamine oxidase
  43. A type of diet used to treat seizures that has shown some efficacy:
    Ketogenic diet
  44. A common anti-seizure medication that has numerous bad side effects such as gingival hyperplasia, sedation, blurred speech:
    Phenytoin ( Dilantin )
  45. If tonic-clonic seizures continue longer than 20 minutes the condition is called ________ and a drug of choice for treating this condition is ________
    status epilepticus

    Phenytoin (Dilantin)
  46. An anti-seizure medication that commonly causes GI upset and nauesa but has shown efficacy for all types for seizures:
  47. A very commonly prescribed anti-seizure drug that is commonly prescribed for off-label neuralgic pain that is still under patent:
  48. A new improved version of the above molecule which as official FDA approval for treating neuralgic pain and is still under patent:
    Pregabalin (Lyrica)
  49. The inorganic drug for bipolar disorder:
    Lithium Carbonate
  50. Several drugs in the _____ and _____ families have also gotten official FDA approval for treating bipolar disorder.
    anti-seizure & atypical anti-psychotic
  51. Biochemically, schizophrenia may be due to ____ levels of ____ in the _____ region of the brain
    high & dopamine & mesocortical/ mesolimbic
  52. Hallucinations are an example of ____ symptoms of schizophrenia
  53. An older anti-psychotic drug still occasionally used as a sedative:
  54. Older anti-psychotic drugs often produce symptoms similar to Parkinson's and are called ___________ effects
  55. Two atypical antipsychotics ______and ____are claimed more effective than older antipsychotics in treating the _____
    Resperidone & Zyprexa & negative symptoms
  56. A common adverse effect of several of the atypical antipsychotics:
    weight gain/ Type 2 diabetes
  57. Two common older antiemetics other than Benadryl and THC
    Compazine and Phenergan
  58. A newer antiemetic that is more effective at treating pain associated with chemotherapy:
  59. Depression may be due to ___ levels of the neurotransmitters ____ _____ or ____
    low &

    serotonin & dopamine & norepinephrine
  60. One member of the TCA antidepressant family ____
  61. TCA stands for:
    Tricyclic Antidepressants
  62. Prozac is the original member of the family:
    Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors
  63. Two newer drugs in the SSRI family:
    Zoloft & Paxil
  64. An SARI that is often sedating and was used on Mr. Brown in ODA:
  65. An SNRI that has serious withdrawal problems:
  66. An SNRI that has FDA approval for treating neuralgic pain:
  67. the NDRI antidepressant _____ is advertised as causing minimal sexual dysfunction. It is also approved for use in treating:
    Bupropion & Smoking cessation
  68. The major family of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs:
  69. The Benzodiazepine family potentiates the effect of the natural CNS depressant ___ which works by causing an ___ in ___ ions inside the nerve cell.
    gamma aminobutyric acid & increase & Chloride
  70. The most commonly prescribed member of this family, ___ has been labeled as having an American Express Card problem
  71. A member of this family used to treat alcoholic withdrawal symptoms:
  72. A member of the benzo family used to induce amnesia for surgical procedures:
  73. Name two common diuretics and the primary site of the kidney nephron they act on:
    • 1- Hydrochlorothiazide = early distal convoluted tubule
    • 2- Lasix/ Furosemide = ascending loop of Henle
  74. A low blood level of ___ ion, called ___ is a common adverse effect of diuretics and a common symptom of this condition is ____
    K+ & hypokalemia & muscle cramps
  75. Two diuretics that prevent muscle cramps, ____ and ___ work on the ____ portion of the nephron.
    Aldactone & Amiloride & Late distal convoluted tubule
  76. Two common specific ACE inhibitors are:
    Lisinopril & Enalapril
  77. ARB or ARA stands for ______
    Angiotension II Receptor Antagonists/ Blockers
  78. One ARB is:
  79. ARB's advantage over ACE inhibitors:
    no cough
  80. A calcium channel blocker (CCB) that works only on blood vessels:
  81. A calcium channel blocker that also works on the heart:
  82. Advertisements for CCB's suggest that they are more efficacious in ___ racial group other than antihypertensives
    African American
  83. antiHTN family that has persistent cough as a side effect:
    ACE inhibitors
  84. antiHTN family that has edema as a common effect:
    Calcium channel blockers
  85. an antiHTN family that is teratogenic:
    ACE inhibitor
  86. ___ is commonly used for angina, and is put under the tonque or cheek rather than swallowed because of the ___ effect
    Nitroglycerin & first-pass
  87. Two other classes of drugs commonly used for prevention of anginal attack:
    Ca Channel Blockers & Beta Blockers
  88. Long term use of angina drugs has dropped in the last decade because of an increase in ___ procedures
    angioplasty / stents
  89. Nitroglycerin and Viagra are both metabolized to produce the potent vasodilator:
    Nitric Oxide
  90. A family ending in -pril:
    ACE inhibitors
  91. family ending in -sartan:
    Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
  92. -prazole family:
    Proton Pump Inhibitors
  93. family ending in -lam or -pam:
  94. family ending in -glitazone:
  95. family ending in -setron:
    chemotherapy antiemetics
  96. family ending in -triptan:
    Triptan (migraine family)
  97. A common drug isolated from wildflower foxglove leaves for the treatment of congestive heart failure:
  98. digoxin causes ___ heart rate and __ contraction intensity which is referred to as a positive ___ effect
    decreased & increased & inotropic
  99. Digoxin can cause heart block, especially when combined with ___ family of drugs
  100. An anticoagulant originally used in rat poison:
  101. An Anticoagulant that inhibits vitamin K synthesis:
  102. an anticoagulant whose effect is immediate:
  103. An anticoagulant with more reproducible activity than the usual IV drug:
  104. An expensive prescription platelet aggregation inhibitor:
  105. A patient on the anticoagulant ___ should have an INR measured on a regular basis. A patient with an INR of 1.2 is in danger of ____
    warfarin & stroke/ blood clot
  106. INR stands for:
    International Normalized Ratio
  107. A drug under patent commonly used to inhibit blood platelet aggregation:
  108. Full generic name for one thrombolytic drug:
    tissue plasminogen activator
  109. The abbreviation for this thrombolytic drug is __ the most critical factor in determining the efficacy of this drug is ___
    tPA & timing (must be done within 3 hours)
  110. The most common adverse effect of tPA is :
  111. The __ family of drugs inhibits the first enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis
  112. name 2 common drugs in this (statin) family:
    atorvastatin & simvastatin
  113. A drug which inhibits absorption of dietary cholesterol:
  114. use of Zetia is questioned because:
    it doesnt reduce mortality or risk of MI/stroke
  115. A vitamin which lowers serum cholesterol when given in megadoses:
  116. NSAID stands for:
    Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory disease
  117. an OTC NSAID w/ 8 hour half life:
  118. A common adverse effect of OTC NSAIDs is ___ due to the fact they inhibit both forms of the enzyme ____
    gastric ulcers & cyclooxygenase
  119. An OTC NSAID associated with Reyes syndrome:
  120. An OTC analgesic and antipyretic which is not an anti-inflammatory:
  121. A prescription NSAID whose use should be limited to 5 days:
  122. An NSAID used for treatment of gout:
  123. the anti-inflammatory drug __ is given by injection for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases
    Enbrel/ Humira
  124. Long term blood glucose control is best measured by a quantity abbreviated ___ which is also referred to as ___. A typical value for non-diabetics is __
    HbA1C & Glycated Hemoglobin & 5-5.5
  125. A name brand for regular insulin
    :Humulin / Novolin R
  126. A type of insulin that acts faster than regular insulin:
  127. A common intermediate acting type of insulin:
    NPH/ Novolin N
  128. A long acting once/day form of insulin
  129. Diabetics should not give themselves injections in the same location to avoid:
  130. The oldest family of oral diabetic drugs__ acts at a molecular level by increasing insulin secretion
  131. A specific member of the sulfonylurea family:
    glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride
  132. A common adverse effect other than hypoglycemia of the sulfonylurea family:
    weight gain
  133. An oral diabetic drug ___ has recently been pulled off the market due to increased risk of __. A second drug in the family still deemed to be safe:
    Advandia & MI/Stroke & Actos
  134. A second common unrelated oral diabetic drug often regarded as the first line drug which is still regareded as relatively safe:
  135. Actos and metformin work at a molecular level by:
    increasing the sensitivity of insulin receptors
  136. An analgesic opioid used by dentists with doubtful efficacy is:
    Darvon/ Darvocet
  137. A potent synthetic opiate that is available as a transdermal patch:
  138. The most dangerous adverse effect of opioid overdose:
    Respiratory depression
  139. An additional easily checked clinical sign of opioid overdose:
  140. Opioid overdose can be treated by:
  141. Codeine is virtually always combined with __
  142. ___ is an opiate originally developed as an oral alternative to heroin addicts, now commonly used for treating pain
  143. A device that allows a hospital patient to control their own IV dosage of morphine:
    Patient Controlled Analgesia
  144. Two opiates __ and ___ are ineffective in 7% of the American population because:
    codeine and vicodin & the lack CYP 2D6
  145. A synthetic opiate used for control of diarrhea:
  146. The common amide dental local anesthetic:
  147. A topical anesthetic that is also used in Solarcaine:
  148. cocaine is schedule :
  149. Cimetidine (Tagamet) was the first member of the __ family of drugs for treating ulcers. It has largely been replaced by drugs in the same family such as __ and __
    H2 Antagonists & Zantac & Pepcid
  150. The full medical name for heartburn:
    Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease
  151. A drug family that is even more effective in stopping gastric HCl secretion than the Tagamet family:
    Proton Pump Inhibitors
  152. __ is the pure right hand glove form of the ulcer drug__ which has recently gone OTC
    Nexium & Prilosec
  153. The bacteria implicated in causing many non-NSAID related ulcers:
    Helicobacter Pylori
  154. Oral use of a broad spectrum antibiotic can produce a superinfection from a bacteria called:
    Clostridium Difficile
  155. C-Diff can cause an often-fatal condition:
    Psuedomembranous Colitis
  156. Penicillin drugs work at a molecular level by inhibiting the enzyme___ which synthesizes ___ molecules in the cell wall
    transpeptidase & gram positive
  157. The most common penicillin drug __ can be combined with ___ which inhibits penicillinase.
    amoxicillin & potassium clavulanate
  158. Bacteria can become resistant to penicillins by developing the enzymes:
    penicillinase / beta lactamase
  159. MRSA stands for:
    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
  160. antibiotic family similar to penicillins working on gram negative bacteria
  161. cephalosporin family drug used for treating gonorrhea:
  162. IV drug of last resort for bacteria that are resistant:
  163. antibiotic that should not be given to children under 8
  164. relative of erythromycin that only needs 5 days:
  165. infection aquired in a hospital:
  166. __ common alternative to penicillin and is drug of choice for lymes disease but can cause photosensitivity
  167. ___ has adavantage of longer halflife
  168. Sulfamethoxazole one of the oldest antibiotics is a member of the family __ antibiotic family and is usually given in combo with trimethoprim because ___ and it inhibits synthesis of __
    sulfonamides & difficult for bacteria to become resistant & folic acid
Card Set
Pharm Midterm Questions
Questions from the practice midterm online