prevents major changes in pH by removing or releasing H+; uses chemical reaction between acids and bases to maintain neutral environment. The major reversible reaction is H+ + HCO3 < --> H2CO3 < --> CO2 + H2O; The body maintains 20:1 ratio of HCO3 to H2CO3; This mechanism occurs within minutes
increase or decrease alveolar ventilation; Hyperventilate to decrease CO2 levels thus decrease H2CO3 and increase pH; Hypoventilate to increase CO2 levels thus increase H2CO3 and decrease pH; This mechanism takes minutes to hours
compensates through rate of elimination or reabsorption of H+ and HCO3 in the kidneys; This mechanism takes hours to days
"the pH is within normal limits, all acid-base parameters return to normal ranges "
"the pH is within normal limits, the acid-base imbalance has been neutralized but not corrected. The acid-base components are abnormal but balanced. Remember the body maintains the 20:1 ratio. Examples : pH 7.36, pCO2 55, HCO3 33 (comp respiratory acidosis); pH-7.36, pCO2 23, HCO3 13 (comp metabolic acidosis)"
"the pH is abnormal but the body buffers and regulatory mechanisms have started to respond to the imbalance. Thus, the acid-base components are abnormal. Examples pH 7.26, pCO2 23, HCO3 8 ( part compensated met acidosis)"
"ABNORMAL pH due to buffer and regulatory mechanisms have not begun to correct the imbalance. (also described as acute); Also the acid or base component is abnormal examples- pH 7.16, pCO2 82, HCO3 26 (resp acidosis); pH 7.52, pCO2 42, HCO3 35 (metabolic alkalosis)"
"Primary H2CO3 deficit or decreased CO2; pH >7.45, pCO2 < 35mmHg, & HCO3 - normal or < 22mEq/L"