1. Gas exchange between blood and alveoli is called_____respiration.
  2. Gas exchange between blood and tissue cells is called______respiration
  3. Passage leading to gas exchange sites is classified as
    conducting zone
  4. Resonating chamber of speech is
  5. Nose is bounded laterally by _____ bones______
  6. Skin on dorsal and lateral side of nose is then and contains_____glands.
  7. Nasal cavity continues posteriorly with the nasal portion of pharynx through
    internal nares or chonae
  8. Nasal cavity is divided by a midline called
    nasal septum
  9. The nasal cavity portion superior to nostrils is called
    nasal vestiuble
  10. Name 3 functions of the sinuses
    • lightens skull
    • warms air
    • traps debris
  11. Inflammation of the nasal mucosa causes a disease called
  12. Sinus headache is primarily caused due to
    vacuum in sinus cavities
  13. The common pathway for both food and air is
  14. The tubes draining the middle ear helping in pressure balancing are
    Auitory tube or Eustachian
  15. Name three functions of the larynx
    • open air way
    • switch for air and food
    • voice
  16. Larynx is arranged intricately by _____ cartilages
  17. Expect for _____ all the laryngreal cartilages are hyaline cartilage
    the epiglottis
  18. The largest laryngeal cartilage is
    thyroid cartilage
  19. Ridge like structure or your Adam's apply is formed by
    fusion of 2 thryoid cartilage
  20. The signet ring shaped cartilage of the larynx is
  21. Vocal cords are anchored to______cartilage
    arytenoid cartilage
  22. Medial opening through which air passes is
  23. Intermittent release of expired air & opening of glottis results in
  24. Length of the vocal cords and size of glottis is altered by______muscles
  25. Tense vocal cords leads to faster vibration resulting in a ____ sound
    high pitch
  26. Deep tones means people have generally a wide
  27. Inflammation of the vocal cords leads to
  28. Wind pipe in the human body is
  29. The last cartilage ring of the trachea is
  30. In human lungs there are ____ lobes on the right and _____lobes on the left
    3 and 2
  31. Actual exchange of gases in the lungs take place in
  32. The walls of the alveoli are made up of ______ cells
    squammous epithelium
  33. Surfactant secreted by the Type II cells help in
    reducing surface tension
  34. Alveolar macrophages are also called as
    dust cells
  35. The lungs are housed in ______ alone with heart and esophagus
  36. Surface of the lung close to the ribs is
    costal surface
  37. Medial surface of each lung has a groove called
  38. ______ side of the lung is small than the _____ side
    left, right
  39. The two lobes of the left lung are divided by
    oblique fissure
  40. The 3 lobes of the right lung are divided by ______ and ______
    oblique and horizontal fissure
  41. The blood vessels which supply impure blood to lungs are
    pulmonary artery
  42. The thin double layered serosa enclosing the root of the lung is called
    parietal pleura
  43. Pleural fluid acts as a
  44. Inflammation of the pleura causes a disease called
  45. Atmospheric pressure (atm) at sea level is _____mm of Hg (murcery)
  46. The pressure within the alveoli of the lungs is
    intrapulmonary pressure
  47. Pressure within the pleural cavity is
    interapleural pressure
  48. Which of the above two pressures is lesser than other and by how much
    Intrapleural is less and by 4mm
  49. If the two pulmonary pressures become equal _____ results
    lung collapse
  50. The presnece of air in intrapleural space is called ________
  51. Relation ebtween pressure and volume at constant temperature is given by _____ law
  52. As a rule gases always flow along their
  53. The diameter of the thorax is expanded by contraction of _____muscles.
  54. A major nonelastic sourse of resistance to gas flow is called_____or_____
    friction or drag
  55. What is the formula to measure gas flow
    pressure gradiant/resistace
  56. Great resistance to gas flow is seen in_____
    median sized tubes
  57. Name any three factors which hinders the passage of air
    ucus, infection, tumors
  58. Ability of the lungs to expand is called
  59. Lung expansion can be dimminished by_____ or______ or______
    fibrosis, high surface tension, blockage
  60. Permanent enlargement of alveoli or destruction of it's wall causes
  61. Molecules of liquid produces a state of pressure at its surface called
    Surface tension
  62. Water has high polarity and hence its surface tenstion is
  63. Type II cells produce____which interferes with cohesiveness of water
  64. IRDS is caused by
    decreased surfactant
  65. Normal volume of air expired and inspired is measured to
    Tital Volume (TV)
  66. Define inspiratory reserve volume
    air inspired after TV
  67. Define expiratory reserve volume
    air that can be evacuated
  68. Define inspiratory capacity
    air inspired after tidal resipration
  69. Define residual volume
    air in lungs after
  70. Define functional residual capacity
    air in lungs after tidal respiration
  71. Define vital capacity
    total exchanged air
  72. Air that is not invovled in gas exchange is referred to____ and amounts to _____ml
    dead space, 150
  73. Instrument which distinguishes between Obstructive and Restrictive disorders is
  74. Define Minute respiratory rewerve volume
    air in and out in 1 minute
  75. Define Forced vital capacity
    air expelled with force
  76. Low forced expiratory volume is and index of_____disease
    obstructive pulmonary
  77. Low forced vital capacity is an index of______disease
    restrictive pulmonary
  78. The formula for Alveolar ventilation rate is_____.
    frequency times TV subtract dead space
  79. Cough and sneeze relates to______ state of respiration
  80. Non respiratory events related to inspiration are _____, ______, and______.
    cry, laugh, yawn, hiccups
  81. Define Daltons law of partial pressures
    Total pressure is equal to the sum of partial pressure of each gas
  82. Define Henry's law
    Gas is soluble according to partial pressure
  83. Hyperbaric chambers provide clinical application of_____ law
  84. Define SCUBA
    self contained underwater breathing applicatoin
  85. Precise coupling of_____ and_____ should be present for efficient gas exchange. 
    ventilation and prefusion
  86. When alveolar ventilation is low and PO2 is less blood vessel
  87. Capillary gas exchange in tissues is called______
    internal respiration
  88. PO2 is ______ in cells and ____ in blood.
    • internal
    • respiration
  89. Oxygen is transported in blood by two ways, name them.
    Bound to Hb and dissolve in plasma
  90. Hemoglobin has______chains.
    4 polypeptide
  91. Each chain in hemoglobin is attrached to_____group.
    iron containing heme
  92. The oxygen binding sites of hemoglobin are_____
    iron atoms
  93. Hemoglobin and Oxygen combine to form
  94. Binding of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th oxygen atoms to hemoglobin is faciliated by
    binding of 1st atom
  95. what is a fully saturated hemoglobin molecute
    4 oxygen bound
  96. substantial amounts of oxygen available in bloode is termed
    venous reserve
  97. If temp increases the affnity of oxygen to hemoglobin
  98. When H+ ions increase affinity of oxygen to Hb_____.  This is _____effect.
    decreases, Bohr
  99. In RBC metabolism of glucose is ___ and enhanced by____
    anaerobic, DPG
  100. Name any three hormones whioch promote diphosphoglycerate production
    thyroxin, testosterone, GH
  101. Poor oxygen delivery is caused by ____ and causes____hypoxia
    Hb impairment and anemia
  102. Stagnant hypoxia is a result of_______
    blocked blood cirucation
  103. Interference with gas exchanges in lungs leads to____hypoxia
  104. Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of_____
    hypoxemic hypoxia
  105. Identify 3 routes fo Co2 transport in blood
    gas in plasma, bind to Hb, and as HCO3
  106. Most of CO2 is carried as____in blood.
  107. CO2 binds to ______ portion of hemoglobin
  108. Oxygen binds to_____portion of hemoglobin
  109. Enzyme which catalyses the conversion of CO2 and water to H2CO3 is
    carbonic anhydrase
  110. Movement of ____ ions to counteract the movement of HCO3 ions is called____
    CO, chloride shift
  111. Define Haldane effect
    low PCO2-more O2 carried
  112. _____ and____ regions of brain has respiratory centers
    pons, medulla
  113. Normal respiratory rate is called
  114. Medullary respiratory centers contorl_____part of respiration.
  115. Center which sends inhibitory signals to inspiratory center of medulla is_____
    pheumotoxic center
  116. Prolonged inspiration is due to the signal sent to medullary center by
    apneustic center
  117. Protective mechanism of terminating inspiration and promoting expiration is ___reflex. 
  118. Hyperventilation is a process involving____in CO2 and _____ in pH.
    low, high
  119. Breathing into a bag is an example when CO2 levels
  120. Name three reasons for causation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
    smoking, dyspheah, acidosis
  121. Name the 3 types of lung carcinomas
    squammous, adeno, small cell
  122. During fetal life gas exchanges are performed through
  123. Cystic fibrosis is caused due to
    high visous mucous
  124. Why respiratory rate of new born babies are high?
    need more O2
  125. In infants breathing is relied on movements of____ and is called____
    diaphragm, abdominal breathing
  126. Normal adult respiratory rate is
    12-18 per min
  127. Many old people tend to become hypoxic during sleep due to the decrease in
    vital capacity
  128. It takes____ weeks for lungs to fully develop during growth
Card Set