Acid-Controlling Drugs

  1. Antacids Mechanism of action
    • Neutralize gastric acidity by neutralizing acid secretions
    •   May promote gastric mucosal defensive mechanisms
  2. Antacids Indications
    Acute relief of symptoms of peptic ulcer, gastritis, gastric hyperacidity, and heartburn
  3. Antacids Contraindications
    Severe renal failure or electrolyte disturbances, and GI obstruction
  4. Antacids Adverse Effects
    • Magnesium- diarrhea
    •  Aluminum-constipation
    • Calcium- constipation, kidney stones, acid rebound
  5. Hreceptor Mechanism of action
    Competitively block the H2 receptor of acid-producing parietal cells
  6. H2 receptor Indications
    GERD, peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis
  7. Hreceptor Contraindications
    Liver and/or kidney dysfunction
  8. H2 receptor Adverse Effects
    • CNS: confusion and disorientation
    • Cimetidine: impotence and gynecomastia
    • May cause headaches, lethargy, confusion, diarrhea, urticaria, sweating, flushing, other effects
  9. Proton pump inhibitors mechanism of action
    Binds irreversibly to the proton pump which prevents the movement of hydrogen ions from the parietal cells into the stomach
  10. Proton pump inhibitors indications
    Erosive esophagitis, symptomatic GERD, active duodenal ulcers, active benign gastric ulcers, gastric hypersecretory conditions, NASAID-induced ulcers
  11. Sucralfate
    • Cytoprotective drug
    • Used for stress ulcers, peptic ulcer disease
    • Attracted to and binds to the base of ulcers and erosions, forming a protective barrier over these areas
    • Protects these areas from pepsin, which normally breaks down proteins (making ulcers worse)
  12. Misoprostol
    • Synthetic prostaglandin analog
    • Prostaglandins have cytoprotective activity
    • Protect gastric mucosa from injury by enhancing local production of mucus or bicarbonate
    • ~Promote local cell regeneration
    • ~Help to maintain mucosal blood flow
  13. Simethicone
    • Antiflatulent drug
    • Used to reduce the discomforts of gastric or intestinal gas (flatulence)
    • Alters elasticity of mucus-coated gas bubbles, breaking them into smaller ones
    • Result is decreased gas pain and increased expulsion via mouth or rectum
Card Set
Acid-Controlling Drugs
Pharm test four