Antihypertensive Drugs

  1. Centrally acting alpha2-receptor agonists Mechanism of Action
    • stimulate alpha2-adrenergic receptors in the brain
    • decrease sympathetic outflow from the CNS and norepinephrine production
  2. beta blockers
    reduce BP by reducing heart rate through beta1- blockade
  3. centrally acting alpha2-receptor agonist indications
    • hypertension
    • severe dysmenorrhea, menopausal flushing, glaucoma
  4. peripherally acting alpha1- receptor agonists
    • hypertension, BPH
    • management of severe HF when used with cardiac glycosides and diuretics
  5. Adrenergic conraindications
    • acute heart failure, severe mental depression, peptic ulcer, colitis, severe liver or kidney disease
    • asthma
  6. Adrenergic containdicaitons
    • Bradycardia with reflex tachycardia, postural and postexercise hypotension, dry mouth, drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, edema, constipation, sexual dysfunction 
    • Headaches, sleep disturbances, nausea, rash, peripheral pooling of blood, cardiac disturbances (palpitations)
    • Hyperglycemic episodes
  7. angiotensin-converting enzyme mechanism of action
    inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme
  8. angiotensin-converting enzyme indications
    • Hypertension, heart failure (alone or in combo)
    • Slow progression of left ventricular hypertrophy after MI (cardioprotective)
    • Renal protective effects in patients with diabetes
  9. angiotensin-converting enzyme contraindications
    hyperkalemia, lactating mothers, children, bilateral renal artery stenosis
  10. angiotensin-converting adverse effects
    • fatigue, dizziness, mood changes, headaches
    • Cough, first-dose hypotensive effect
    • Loss of taste, hyperkalemia, rash, pruritus, anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytosis, agranulocytosis 
    • Dry, nonproductive cough
    • Angioedema
  11. angiotensin II receptor blockers mechanism of action
    •  Allow angiotensin 1 to be converted to angiotensin 2, but block the receptors that receive angiotensin 2
  12. Angiotensin II receptor blockers indications
    • Hypertension, heart failure (adjunct drugs)
    • May be used alone or with other drugs such as diuretics
    • Used primarily in patients who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors
  13. Angiotension II receptor blockers contraindications
    pregnancy, lactation
  14. angiotension II receptor blockers adverse effects
    • Upper respiratory infections, headache
    • Dizziness, inability to sleep, diarrhea, dyspnea, heartburn, nasal congestion, back pain, fatigue
    • Hyperkalemia
  15. Calcium Channel Blockers Mechanism of Action
    Cause smooth muscle relaxation by blocking the binding of calcium to its receptors, preventing muscle contraction
  16. Calcium Channel Blockers Indications
    Angina, hypertension, dysrhythmias, migraine headaches, Raynaud’s disease
  17. Calcium channel Adverse
    • Cardiovascular: hypotension, palpitations, tachycardia
    • Gastrointestinal: Constipation, nausea
    • Other: rash, flushing, peripheral edema, dermatitis
  18. Vasodilators Mechanism of Action
    Directly relax arteriolar and/or venous smooth muscle
  19. Vasodilators Indications
    Treatment of hypertension
  20. Vasodilators Hydralazine Adverse Effects
    Dizziness, headache, anxiety, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, dyspnea, edema, nasal congestion, others
  21. Vasodilators Sodium nitroprusside Adverse Effects
    Bradycardia, hypotension, possible cyanide toxicity
  22. Vassodilators Diazoxide Adverse Effects
    Dizziness, headache, anxiety, orthostatic hypotension, dysrhythmias, sodium and water retention, nausea, vomiting, hyperglycemia in diabetic patients
Card Set
Antihypertensive Drugs
Pharm test four