Nutrition Test 2

  1. Calorie
    • One calorie expresses the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1
    • kg (1 L) of water by 1° Celsius
  2. Conversions
    • 1 cal = 3.184 J
    • 1 kCal = 1000 cal = 4186 J = 4.184 kJ
    • 1 MJ = 1000 kJ
    • 1 BTU = 778 ft lb = 252 cal = 1055 J
  3. Temperature
    Reflects a quantitiative measure of an object's hotness or coldness
  4. Heat
    Describes energy transfer (exchange) from one body or system to another
  5. Measurements of Human Energy Expenditure
    • Direct Calorimetry
    • Indirect Calorimetry
    • Doubly labeled water technique
  6. Direct Calorimetry
    • Directly measures energy expenditure
    • Consists of airtight chamber where human works
    • Changes in water temperature directly relate to energy metabolism
    • Image Upload 1
  7. Indirect Calorimetry
    • Indirect calorimetry infers energy expenditure from measurements of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production 
    • All energy releasing reactions in body ultimately depend on oxygen use
  8. Closed Circuit Spirometry
    • Subject breathes 100% oxygen from a prefilled container.
    • A canister of soda lime absorbs the carbon dioxide in exhaled air.
    • Hard to do with excersize
  9. Open Circuit Spirometry
    • Most widely used for exercise oxygen uptake
    • Subject inhales ambient air with 20.93% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and 79.04% nitrogen
    • Indirectly reflects the ongoing process of energy metabolism
    • Analysis of volume of air breathed during a time and composition of exhaled air
  10. Indirect Calomety procedures
    • Measure oxygen uptake during various physical activities
    • Portable spirometry
    • Bag technique
    • Computerized instrumentation
    • Doubly labeled water technique
  11. Portable Spirometry
    • Carry a thing like backpack
    • ambient inspired air passed through two way valve and expired air exited through a gas meter
    • Meter measured total expired air volume and collected small gas sample for later analysis of oxygen and carbon dioxide content
  12. Bag Technique
    • Ride bike 
    • Breath ambient air through one side of valve and expels out other side
    • Meter collects sample expired air for analysis of O2 and CO2 composition
  13. Computerized instrumentation
    • A system that continuously samples the subject’s expired air
    • A flow-measuring device that records air volume breathed
    • Oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers that measure the composition of the expired gas mixture
    • Performs metabolic calculations based on electronic signals it receives from the instruments
  14. Doubly Labeled Water
    • Provides a useful way to estimate total daily energy
    • expenditure in free-living conditions
    • Expensive
    • Provides an ideal way to assess total energy  expenditure of groups over prolonged time periods 
    • Drink water with 2H and 18O
    • Isotopes distribute
  15. Respiratory Quotient
    • The ratio of carbon dioxide produced to
    • oxygen consumed
    • Ratio of metabolic gas exchange 
    • CO2 produced / O2 consumed
    • Provides guide to approximate the nutrient mixture catabolized for energy during rest and aerobic exercise
  16. RQ for Carbohydrate
    • Complete oxidation of one glucose molecule
    • Requires 6 oxygen
    • Produces 6 CO2 and H20
    • Gas exhange creates equal number of CO2 and O2 so RQ = 1
  17. RQ for Lipid
    • Catobolizing fat for energy requires more oxygen
    • Palmitic acid oxidixes
    • Produces 16 CO2 for every
    • 23 O2 consumed
    • RQ = .7
    • Ranges between .69 and .73 and depends on  carbon chain length
  18. RQ for Protein
    • Liver first deaminates amino acid molecules
    • Body excretes the nitrogen and sulfer
    • Remaining keto acid oxidize to
    • Produced 63 CO2 for every 77 O2 consumed
    • Produces 38 H20, SO3, 9 CO(NH2)2
    • RQ = .82
  19. RQ for Mixed Diet
    Between .7 - 1.0 = around .85
  20. Respiratory exchange Ratio
    • Ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed
    • Computes same as RQ
    • R above 1.0 is overbreathing exhuastive exercise
    • R below .6 is following exhaustive exercise
  21. Energy Expenditure
    • Three factors determine total daily energy expenditure
    • Resting metabolic rate
    • Thermogenic influence of food consumed
    • Energy expended during physical activity and recovery
  22. Basil Metabolic Rate
    • Minimum energy required sustains the body's funciton
    • Regular exercise slows a decrease in metab with age
    • Lower in femail compared to males
  23. Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure
    • TDEE: Sum of energy required in basal and resting metabolism, thermogenic influences
    • Physical Activity: 15-30 %
    • Dietary-induced thermogenesis: 10-35 %
    • Climate- 5-20% more
  24. Resting Metabolic rate
    • Includes basal and sleeping conditions plus teh added energy cost of arousal
    • Energy required to perform vital body functions such as respiration and heart rate while the body is at rest
    • 60-70% dialy Daily energy expenditure
    • 10% eating
    • 15-30 % Physical activity
  25. Average daily rates of energy expenditure
    • Spends 75% of day in sedentary activities 
    • Called homosedentarius
    • 60% of american adults don't do enough to provide benefits
    • More than 25% receive no additional activity
    • During day time spent sleeping (8), sitting (6), standing (6), walking (2), recreational activity (2)
  26. Metabolic Equivalent (MET)
    • One MET represents an adult's average seated, resting oxygen consumption or energy expenditure
    • A 2MET activity requries twice the resting metabolis or about 500 ML of oxygen per minute
    • Convenient way to rate exercise intensity with respect to a resting baseline
    • 10 METs =11.7 Kcal min
  27. Energy Balance Equation
    • Body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure.
    • 3500 kCal approximately equals 1 lb of stored body fat
    • Consume 3500 extra kCal, gain 1 pound
    • Burn 3500 kCal, lose 1 pound
  28. Principles of Good Eating
    • Variety
    • Balance
    • Moderation
  29. Variety
    Choosing from variety creates sufficient amounts of all required nurtrients
  30. Balance
    • Indicates the intake of nutrients from the major food groups
    • Provides no deficiency
  31. Moderation
    • Appropriate planning to maintain balanced nutritent intake thorughout day
    • Moderates instead of eliminate
  32. MyPyramid
    • Personalized based on age sex and level of exercise
    • Based on 2005 dietary guidelines for americans
    • Includes a figure walking up the side of the pyramid to emphasize at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity
    • Image Upload 2
  33. Dietary Guidelines
    • Control caloric intake to manage body weight
    • Consume a variety of foods
    • Increase daily intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and milk products
    • Choose fats wisely for good health
    • Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health. 
    • Choose and prepare foods with little salt
    • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation
    • Be physically active every day
    • Keep food safe to eat.
  34. Serving Size
    • USDA pasta serving .5 cup, FDA is 1 cup
    • 30 minutes a day and 60 minutes for kids
    • Emphasize whole grain consumption
  35. Diet Quality Index
    • Provides a general indication of the healthfulness of one's diet 
    • Scoring schema based on risk gradient associated with diet and major diet related chronic diseases
    • Score 4 or less is more healthful
    • score of 10 or more less healthful
  36. Healthy Eating Index
    • By USDA for nutrition promotion activities and to monitor changes in diet quality over time
    • Poor diet = 65
    • Good = > 85
    • Higher up score the better
  37. Protein Intake
    • RDA = .8 kg of body mass
    • Eating a high-carbohydrate diet with dequate energy intake conserves muscle protein in individuals who engage in protracted intense
    • training
    • Those in endurance training = 1.2 to 1.4 g of high-quality protein per kg of body mass daily
    • Those who resistance train may benefit from 1.6 g/kg of body mass
  38. Simple Amino Acids
    • Some athletes supplement with simple amino acids.
    • Advocates believe the body absorbs the simple amino acidvmolecule more readily.
    • The healthy intestine absorbs amino acids rapidly when they exist in more complex di-
    • and tripeptide molecules, not just in simple amino acid form.
  39. Lipids
    • Not exceed 30% of diet's energy content
    • 70% should come from unsaturated fatty acids
    • No benefits below the 30% mark
    • Necessary to obtain essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
  40. Carbs
    • Rapidly hurts energy reserves for vigorous physical activity or regular training
    • Physically active individuals should consume at least 55-60% of calories as carbohydrates, predominantly starches from fiber-rich,
    • unprocessed grains, fruits, and vegetables. 
    • Endurance training = 10 g carbs per kg of body mass per day
    • 24 hours to replenish glycogen levels after hard workout
  41. Vitamins
    50 years research not support use of vitamins to improve aerobic and aneraobic exercise performance
  42. Megavitamins
    • 10 to 1000 times RDA
    • Excess C = kidney stones, gout, destroy B12
    • Excess B6= liver disease, nerve damage
    • Excess B2 riboflavin = hurt vision
    • Excess Niacin =  vasodilation, inhibition of fatty acid mobilization during workout
    • Folate = allergic response hives, light head
    • E = headache, fatigue, low blood sugar,
    • A = toxic to nervous system
    • D = damage kidneys
  43. Antioxidants
    • Aerobic exercise metabolism increases the production of free radicals
    • B carotene
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Selenium, copper, manganease, zinc
    • Coenzyme Q10
  44. Immune system
    • Integrated network of molecules, cells, tissues and organs that defend an organism against infection by foreign substances
    • Repair damaged tissues and clean up debris of dead cells
  45. Type of Immunities
    • Innate: Natural, Anatomic and phsiologic componenst like skin, mucous membranes and can recognize a foreign substance without prior exposure
    • Adaptive: acquired immune cells memory recognized a pathogen and responds quicker
  46. Exercise and Immunity
    • Moderate: boosts for several hours
    • Exhaustive: impairs body's first line of defense against infection
    • Aerobic training postivitely affect natural immune functions and resistance to stress in young and older individuals
  47. High Risk Sports
    • —Gymnasts - women
    • —Cross Country Runners - women
    • —Ballet Dancers – both men and women
    • —Ice Dancers – both men and women
    • —Boxing – men and women
    • —Wrestling – both men and women
  48. Mediterranean and Veg diets
    • Med: fruits, nuts begs, legumes, grains, proten from fish beans and chx and high monosat fatty acid content
    • Veg: consist of foods from plant kingdom
    • Vegin: no animal products at all
    • Lacto-Veg: Veg with dairy products
    • Ovo: Veg no meant or dairy but does eat eggs
  49. Precompetition Meal
    • High in carbs, low in fats and proteins
    • 3-4 hours to digest absorb and store
    • Maximize muscle and liver glycogen stoarage and prvodes glucose for intestinal absorption during excercise
    • 150-300 g carbs
    • Little fiber
  50. Why High Carbs?
    • Replenish liver and muscle glycogen depletion from overnight fast
    • digest and absorb fast and provide energty faster 
    • High proten makes resting metab
    • Proten breakdown leads to dehydration
    • Carbs serve as primary energy nutrient for short term anaerobic activity and for proloned
  51. Different Meals
    • Liquid Meals
    • Nutrition Bars
    • Nutrition Powders and Drinks
  52. Liquid Meal
    • High carb content and enough lipid and protein to contribute to satiety
    • Digest fast
    • Can be used for day long events
    • Help maintain body weight
  53. Nutrition bars
    • High protein content between 10-30 g
    • About 25 g of carbs
    • Have vitamins and minerals
    • May have dietary supplements
    • Not substiute for normal food intate don't have other nutrients and have high saturated fatty acids
  54. Nutrition powders and drinks
    • High protein content 10-50 g
    • have vitamins, minerals and other dietary stuff
    • Fewer calories per serving than nutrion bars
    • Drink has more protein and less carb than powder
  55. Carbs before Exercise
    • If simple sugars consumed, at least 1 hour before so have time to rebalance
    • Fructose absorbs sloly compared to glucose or sucrose and can produce gas distress
  56. Carbs during Exercise
    High intensity for 1 hour decreases liver glycogen by 55%Consumeing 60 g of liquid or solid carb each hour benefits high intensity, long, and repetitiveSpares muscle glycogenHelps maintain a more optional blood glucose level
  57. Carbs after Exercise
    • High glycemic carbs
    • Either single large or small frequent meals will restore
    • As soon as possible
    • Avoid legumes, fructose and milk each hour so always at least 20 hours to re establish glycogen sotres
  58. Glycemic Index
    • Indicates how a carbohydrate containg food affects blood glucose levels
    • Gycemic response: rise in blood sugar
    • Glycemic index expresses the percentage of total area under the blood glucose resopnse curve for a specfic food compared with glucose
    • So 45 means that ingesting 50 g of that food rases blood glucose conentrations to levels that reach 45% of that reached with 50 g of glucose
    • Affected by food prep, ripeness and how foods combined
    • Glycemic load: overall glycemic effect of a typical portion of food
  59. Hyponatremia
    • Brain swelling
    • Imbalance of water to salt caused by:
    • Euvolemic: total body water increases but sodium content remains same
    • Hypervoulemic: both sodium and water content in body increase but water gain greater
    • Hypovolemic: sodium loss greater
    • Hyponatremia most common electorylyte disorder in US
  60. Pre-exercise Feeding
    • Ideal meal immediately before exercising should provide a source of glucose to maintain blood sugar and sustan muscle metab
    • Not trigger a spike in insulin release
    • Consume low glycemic index foods right before slow reate of glucose absorption
  61. Water uptake
    • Consume 400 to 600 ml of fluid 20 minutes before exercise to optimize the benifical effect of increased stomach volume on fluid and turient passage into samll intestine
    • Having large stomach fluid volume speeds gastric emptying
  62. Absorption and Emplying
    Image Upload 3
  63. Oral Rehydration Solution
    • Provide additional glucose
    • Minimize the effects of dehydration on:
    • Cardiovascular dynamics
    • Temperature regulation
    • Exercise performance
    • Adding electrolytes aids in:
    • Maintaining thirst mechanism
    • Reducing the risk of hyponatremia
  64. Gastic Empytinng
    • Empties up to 1700 ml of water/hour
    • 1000 ml of fluid consumed is optimal volume to offset dehydration
  65. Recommended oral rehydration beverage
    • 5-8% carboydrae-electroytle beverage consumed while exercising in the heat helps to regulate temp and fluid balance as effectively as plain water
    • Alos maintains glucose metabolism and preservs glycogen during prolonmged exercise
    • Absorbs rapidly
    • Divide car in grams by fluid voulme and multiply by 100
  66. Food Advertising and Packaging
    • Advertising: Purposely attempst to crate shape and alter perceptionas about what we eat and how we excercise
    • Spends more than 40 bill
    • Packagaging can have false info
  67. Food Safety Agencies
    • US Deparment of health and human services
    • Us department of agriculuture
    • US department of commerce
    • US department of the treasury
  68. Dietary Supplements
    • Product taken by mouth with dietary ingredient
    • Must be clearly labled
    • Quality control does not exist for dietary supplements
  69. Nutrition lable
  70. Nutrition Lable
    Image Upload 4
  71. Facts Panel
    • Title: Supplement Facts
    • Information per serving
    • Nutrients required in nutrition labeling of foods
    • Other dietary ingredients that do not have recommendatons for daily consumptiong
    • List of dietary ingredients in nutrition lable
    • Botanicals state part of plant
    • Proprietary bleds with weights
  72. Food Lable
    • Purpose to help consumers choose more healthful diets and offer an incentive to food companies to improve
    • Lisa Calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, total carb, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamins and minerals
    • Image Upload 5
  73. Daily Values
    • Daily reference values (DRV) and reference daily intakes (RDI)
    • RDI label reference value for vitamins, minerals and protein in voluntary nutrition labeling
  74. Food Additives
    • No bad health effects
    • Test it
    • Safe 2000 flavoring, 200 coloring agents
Card Set
Nutrition Test 2