1. DNA structure...
    • Sugar: Deoxyribose
    • Bases: Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
    • Strands: Double stranded with base pairing
    • Helix: Yes
    • Helix; An object having a three-dimensional shape like that of a wire wound uniformly around a cylinder or cone.
  2. RNA structure...
    • Sugar: Ribose
    • Bases: Adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine
    • Strands: Single stranded
    • Helix: No
  3. Composition and function of the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell...
    • Composition: Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
    • Function: Defines cell boundary; regulates molecule passage into and out of cells.
  4. Composition and function of the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell...
    • Composition: Nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin, and nucleoli.
    • Functions: Storage of genetic information; synthesis of DNA and RNA.
  5. Composition and function of the nucleolus...
    • Composition: Concentrated area of chromatin, RNA, and proteins.
    • Function: Ribosomal subunit formation.
  6. Composition and function of a ribosome (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Protein and RNA in two subunits.
    • Function: Protein synthesis.
  7. Composition and function of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Membranous flattened channels and tubular canals.
    • Function: Synthesis and/or modification of proteins and other substances, and distribution (dreifing) by vesicle formation.
  8. Composition and function of an rough ER (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Network of folded membranes studded with ribosomes.
    • Function: Folding, modification (lagfæring, smá breyting), and transport of proteins.
  9. Composition and function of a smooth ER (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Having no ribosomes.
    • Function: Various; lipid synthesis in some cells.
  10. Composition and function of the Golgi apparatus (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Stack of membranous saccules (belgir).
    • Function: Processing, packaging, and distribution (dreifing) of proteins and lipids.
  11. Composition and function of a lysosome (animal cell only)..
    • Composition: Membranous vesicles containing digestive enzymes.
    • Function: Intracellular digestion.
  12. Composition and function of vacuole and vesicle (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Membranous sacs.
    • Function: Storage of substances.
  13. Composition and function of an peroxisome (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Membranous vesicle containing specific enzymes.
    • Function: Various metabolic tasks.
  14. Composition and function of a cell wall in a plant cell..
    • Composition: Contains cellulose fibrils.
    • Function: Support and protection.
  15. Composition and function of the mitochondrion (hvatberi) (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Inner membrane (cristae) bounded by an outer membrane.
    • Function: Cellular respiration (frumuöndun).
  16. Composition and function of a chloroplast (plant cell only)..
    • Composition: Membranous grana (skífulaga eining) bounded by two membranes.
    • Function: Photosynthesis
  17. Composition and function of the cytoskeleton (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: Microtubules, intermediate, actin filaments.
    • Function: Shape of cell and movement of its parts.
  18. Cilia (bifhár) and flagella (svipur) (animal and plant cells)..
    • Composition: 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules.
    • Function: Movement of cell.
  19. Centriole (deilikorn) (animal cells only)..
    • Composition: 9 + 0 pattern of microtubules.
    • Function: Formation of basal bodies.
  20. Enzymes..
    "Enzymes are protein molecules that speed chemical reactions by lowering the energy of activation. They do this by forming an enzyme-substrate complex."
  21. Five-Kingdom system
    Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista (Frumvera) and Monera (ríki dreifkjörnunga)
  22. Classification if living things:
    Domain - Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order Family - Genus - Species

    Dumb Kids Playing Chess On Freeways Get Squished!!
  23. Vitamin C deficiency
    Scurvy (skyrbjúgur)
  24. Vitamin A deficiency
    Night blindness (náttblinda)
  25. Vitamin D deficiency
    Rickets (beinkröm)
  26. Vitamin K deficiency
    Easy bruising and bleeding
  27. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency
    Beriberi (taugakröm)
  28. Vitamin B(Niacin) deficiency
    Pellagra (húðkröm)
  29. Living things
    Living things are organized. The levels of biological organization extend as follows: Atoms and molecules --> cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organisms --> populations --> communities --> ecosystems (vistkerfi)
  30. Sakkarósi (strásykur)..
    Glúkósi + frúktósi = Sakkarósi
  31. Mjólkursykur (laktósi)..
    Galaktósi + glúkósi = Laktósi
  32. Fosfólipíð er úr..
    Glýseróli, 2x fitusýrum, fosfathóp og alkóhóli
  33. Classification of organisms reflects
    similarities and evolutionary history
  34. The process of science..
    Observation --> Hypothesis --> Experiment --> Conclusion --> Scientific theory
  35. The ultimate source of energy in any ecosystem is..
    The sun
  36. Which are the most biologically diverse ecosystems?
    Rain forests and coral reefs (kóralrif)
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