Anatomy Final

  1. Entry of calcium ions at the synaptic knob causes
    Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
  2. Microglial Cells
    phagocytose phathogens and cellular debris
  3. Astrocytes
    help form the blood-brain barrier
  4. Gaps between myelin sheaths are called
  5. Ependymal cells
    myelinate axons in the peripheral nervous system
  6. The cuada equina is
    A bundle of spinal nerves
  7. Huntington's disease involves an imbalance of neurotransmitter
  8. A lumber puncture (spinal tap) is performed at approximately which vertebral level?
  9. Hydrocephalus is caused by
    Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles
  10. What is a neuropeptide that functions to relieve pain sensations
  11. A plexus is a bundle of
    spinal nerves
  12. What are the 4 possible structures of a neuron?
    • 1. Multipolar = 1 axon, multiple dendrites
    • 2. Bipolar = 1 axon + 1  dendrite
    • 3. Unipolar = 1 branch off cell body to axons and dendrites
    • 4. Anaxonic = dendrites only (brain - learning/memory)
  13. What is anterograde and retrograde axonal transport
    • Retrograde = movement up the axon toward the soma
    • Anterograde = movement away from the soma down the axon
  14. If a voltage across a neuron membrane is -70mv the membrane is
    at resting potential
  15. What are the 5 steps of Synaptic Transmission?
    • 1. Arrival of action potential @ pre-synaptic knob
    • 2. Entry of calcium ions
    • 3. Exocytosis of neurotransmitter
    • 4. Binding of neuro transmitter to receptors 
    • 5. A potential is generated on the post-synaptic membrane
  16. What are the 5 steps of an Excitatory Cholinergic Synapse?
    • 1. Arrival of signal @ synaptic knob opens voltage-gated  calcium channels
    • 2. Ca2+ enters knob, triggers exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, releasing ACh
    • 3. Empty vesicles drop into cytoplasm and refill w/AcH
    • 4. ACh diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to ligand-gated channels on the post-synaptic neuron.
    • Channels open, Na+ enters cell, K+ leaves
    • 5. Na+ speards out and depolarizes the membrane, creating local potential called post-synaptic potential
  17. Cell bodies of somatic motor neurons are located in the
    Anterior horn
  18. A dermatome is
    an area of skin supplied by a particular spinal nerve
  19. What is a cluster of neuron cell bodies?
  20. The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
    Axons of sensory neurons
  21. What does a Sensory Somatic receptor detect and what does a Sensory Visceral receptor detect
    • Sensory Somatic: Skin, muscles bones and joints
    • Sensory Visceral: Viscera of thoracic and abdominal cavities
  22. What does a Motor Somatic receptor detect and what does a Motor Visceral receptor detect?
    • Motor Somatic - Signals to skeletal muscles (somatic reflexes)
    • Motor Visceral - Signals to glands, cardiac and smooth muscle
  23. What do Sensory (AFFERENT) Neurons detect
    Stimuli such as light, heat, pressure, and chemicals and relays to CNS
  24. What do Interneurons do
    These are association neurons, they process, store, gather info to make decisions on stimuli response (lie between neurons in CNS)
  25. What do Motor (EFFERENT) neurons do?
    Signal to muscle and gland cells
  26. What are Olgodendrocytes
    • Bulbous body with up to 15 axon-like arm extensions that wrap around nerve fibers and the myelin sheath speeds up signal conduction in the nerve fiber
    • CNS
  27. What do Ependymal Cells do?
    • CNS
    • Line the brain and spinal cord with roots to underlying tissue, have cilia to move along CSF they produce
  28. Microglia cells do what?
    • CNS
    • Macrophages in CNS, clusters in brain indicate site of injury
    • aide in synaptic remodeling
  29. What are the 2 cells in the PNS and what do they do?
    • Schwann Cells - Myelinate peripheral nerve fibers, assist in regenerating damaged fibers
    • Satellite cells- surround neurosomas in ganglia of PNS
    • Provide electrical insulation around the soma and regulate chemical environment of neurons
  30. The knee-jerk reflex involves __ synapses in the spinal cord
    1 -  monosynaptic reflex arc
  31. Nicotine affects levels of
    Acetylcholine and Dopamine
  32. Where is gray matter located?
    • Somas
    • Dendrites
    • Horns of spinal cord
    • Posterior and anterior roots
    • Proxiumal Parts of axons in neurons
  33. Where is white matter?
    Surrounds the gray matter, bundles in Columns (funiculi) and into Tract subdivision
  34. What is Chromatophilic Substance
    Areas of rough ER/ nissl bodies in the cytoplasm of a neuron cell body
  35. Tracts: What are first, second and third order neurons?
    • First: Detects a stimulus and transmits the signal to the spinal cord or brainstem
    • Second: Continues to the thalamus at the upper end of the brainstem
    • Third - carries the signal the rest of the way to the sensory region of the cerebral cortex
  36. Ascending Tracts: Sensory
    Gracile Fasciculus
    • Carries signals from the mid thoracic (below T6)  and lower parts of the body
    • at T6 it's joined by the cuneate fasciculus 

    Carries signals for visceral pain, deep and discriminative touch, and proprioception of lower limbs/trunk
  37. Ascending Tracts: Sensory
    Cuneate Fasciculus
    • Signals from T6 and above
    • Chest, upper limbs - proprioception

    Ends in the cuneate nucleus
  38. What is the medial lemniscus
    Pathway in the brainstem (axons of the second order neuron) that carries sensory info from Gracile and Cuneate Fasciculus
  39. Ascending Tracts: Sensory
    Signals pain, temp, pressure, tickle, light touch
  40. Ascending Tracts: Sensory
    Signals pain from tissue injury to generate automatic responses
  41. Ascending Tracts: Sensory
    Carries proprioceptive info from limbs and trunk (unconscious)
  42. Descending Tracts: Motor
    • Precise limb movements (conscious) 
    • Form pyramids in medulla oblongata
  43. Descending Tracts: Motor
    • Originates in tectum and goes to the upper spinal cord
    • Controls reflex movements of head to sight/sound
  44. Descending Tracts: Motor
    • Originates in the reticular formation in brain stem, signals to upper and lower limbs for unconscious contractions for posture and balance
    • Descending analgese fibers inhibit pain
  45. Descending Tracts: Motor
    Signals from inner ear about position to the extensor muscle in limbs and neck muscles
  46. What is the Communicating Rami?
    In the thoraculumbar region, each paravertebral ganglion is connected to a spinal nerve by 2 branches of communicating rami
  47. White Communicating ramus
    • Preganglionic fibers pass traveling from spinal nerve to ganglion
    • Mylinated
  48. Gray Communicating Ramus
    • Post ganglionic fibers pass through here in a ramus formed bridge back to the spinal nerve. The fibers exit to target organ.
    • No Myelin
  49. Adrenals: Adrenal Cortex
    Steroid hormones
  50. Adrenals: Adrenal Medulla
    • Sympathetic ganglion consists fo modified postganglionic neurons without dendrites or axons
    • When stimulated, secretes mixture of hormones:
    • 85% epinephrine
    • 15% norepinephrine
    • traces of dopamine
  51. What recieves sensory input from the vagus nerve and regulates homeostasis through the ANS?
  52. Cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons are located where?
    Lateral horn
  53. In a spinal reflex arc, interneurons connect ___ to ____
    Receptors to Motor Neurons

Card Set
Anatomy Final
Anatomy II Final test