1. episode of pain that lasts from seconds to less than 6 months
    acute pain
  2. a pattern of compulsive use of addictive substances for means other than those prescribed
  3. drugs typically used for other purposes, but also used to enhance the effect of opioids by providing additional pain relief
  4. pharmaceutical agent used to relieve pain
  5. temporary flare-up of moderate to severe pain that occurs even when the patient is taking around-the-clock medication for persistent pain
    breakthrough pain
  6. episode of pain that lasts for 6 months or longer; may be intermittent or continuous
    chronic pain
  7. superficial pain usually involving the skin or subcutaneous tissue
    cutaneous pain
  8. the endorphin having the most potent analgesic effect
  9. morphine-like substances released by the body that appear to alter the perception of pain
  10. opioids that are widespread throughout the brain and dorsal horn of the spinal cord and are believed to reduce pain sensation by inhibiting the release of substance P
  11. period in chronic illness when the symptoms of the disease reappear
  12. theory that explains that excitatory  pain stimuli carried by small-diameter nerve fibers can be blocked by inhibiting signals carried large-diameter nerve fibers
    gate control theory
  13. severe pain that is extremely resistant to relief measures
    intractable pain
  14. process by which the sensation of pain is inhibited or modified
  15. endogenous opioid chemical regulators that appear to have analgesic activity and alter pain perception
  16. pain that results from an injury to or abnormal functioning of peripheral nerves or the central nervous system
    neuropathic pain
  17. substances that either excite or inhibit  target nerve cells
  18. pain receptors
  19. more correct term for narcotic analgesics, since these drugs act by binding to opiate receptor sites in the central nervous system
  20. amount of stimulation required before a person experiences the sensation of pain
    pain threshold
  21. point beyond which a person is no longer willing to endure pain (ex. pain of greater duration or intensity)
    pain tolerance
  22. conscious process of organizing and interpreting data from the senses into meaningful information
  23. sensation of pain without demonstrable physiologic or pathologic substance; commonly observed after the amputation of a limb
    phantom pain
  24. phenomenon in which the body physiologically becomes accustomed to an opioid and suffers withdrawal symptoms if the opioid is suddenly removed or the dose is rapidly decreased
    physical dependence
  25. latin word meaning, "i shall please"; an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it
  26. pain for which no physical cause can be identified
    psychogenic pain
  27. pain in an area removed from that in which  stimulation has its origin
    referred pain
  28. period in a chronic illness when the disease is present, but the person does not experience symptoms of the disease
  29. pain originating in structures in the body's external wall
    somatic pain
  30. occurrence of the body's becoming accustomed to an opioid and needing larger dose each time for pain relief
  31. activation of pain receptors
  32. conduction of pain sensations from the site of an injury or inflammation along clear and unclear pathways to the spinal cord and then on to higher centers
  33. pain originating in the internal organs in the thorax, cranium, or abdomen
    visceral pain
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